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Lightning Tips & Safety

August 27th, 2014 at 12:01 pm by under Weather

lion lightning

Lightning: What You Need to Know

  • NO PLACE outside is safe when thunderstorms are in the area!!
  • If you hear thunder, lightning is close enough to strike you.
  • When you hear thunder, immediately move to safe shelter: a substantial building with electricity or plumbing or an enclosed, metal-topped vehicle with windows up.
  • Stay in safe shelter at least 30 minutes after you hear the last sound of thunder.

Indoor Lightning Safety

  • Stay off corded phones, computers and other electrical equipment that put you in direct contact with electricity.
  • Avoid plumbing, including sinks, baths and faucets.
  • Stay away from windows and doors, and stay off porches.
  • Do not lie on concrete floors, and do not lean against concrete walls.

Last Resort Outdoor Risk Reduction Tips

If you are caught outside with no safe shelter anywhere nearby the following actions mayreduce your risk:

  • Immediately get off elevated areas such as hills, mountain ridges or peaks
  • Never lie flat on the ground
  • Never shelter under an isolated tree
  • Never use a cliff or rocky overhang for shelter
  • Immediately get out and away from ponds, lakes and other bodies of water
  • Stay away from objects that conduct electricity (barbed wire fences, power lines, windmills, etc.)

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 LIGHTNING MYTHS AND FACTS

LIGHTNING AND CARS

Do the rubber tires on your car protect you if you are OUTside the car and you’re leaning on it? NO! Like trees, houses, and people, anything outside is at risk of being struck by lightning when thunderstorms are in the area, including cars. The good news though is that the outer metal shell of hard-topped metal vehicles does provide protection to those inside a vehicle with the windows closed. Unfortunately though, the vehicle doesn’t always fare so well.

A typical cloud-to-ground, actually cloud-to-vehicle, lightning strike will either strike the antenna of the vehicle or along the roofline. The lightning will then pass through the vehicle’s outer metal shell, then through the tires to the ground.

Although every lightning strike is different, damage to the antenna, electrical system, rear windshield, and tires is common. The heat from a lightning strike is sufficient to partially melt the antenna of a vehicle and can cause what seems like a small explosion of sparks as tiny fragments of metal melt and burn. A portion of the discharge may find its way into the vehicle’s electrical system and may damage or destroy electronic components, potentially leaving the car inoperable. The lightning may also find its way into the small defrosting wires that are embedded in rear windows causing the windows to shatter. Finally, it’s very common for the lightning to destroy one or more tires as it passes through the steel belts to the ground. It’s also possible for the lightning to ignite a fire which could destroy the vehicle.

 

Myth: Lightning never strikes the same place twice.
Fact: Lightning often strikes the same place repeatedly, especially if it’s a tall, pointy, isolated object. The Empire State Building is hit nearly 100 times a year.

Myth: If it’s not raining or there aren’t clouds overhead, you’re safe from lightning.
Fact: Lightning often strikes more than three miles from the center of the thunderstorm, far outside the rain or thunderstorm cloud. “Bolts from the blue” can strike 10-15 miles from the thunderstorm.

Myth: Rubber tires on a car protect you from lightning by insulating you from the ground.
Fact: Most cars are safe from lightning, but it is the metal roof and metal sides that protect you, NOT the rubber tires. Remember, convertibles, motorcycles, bicycles, open-shelled outdoor recreational vehicles and cars with fiberglass shells offer no protection from lightning. When lightning strikes a vehicle, it goes through the metal frame into the ground. Don’t lean on doors during a thunderstorm.

Myth: A lightning victim is electrified. If you touch them, you’ll be electrocuted.
Fact: The human body does not store electricity. It is perfectly safe to touch a lightning victim to give them first aid. This is the most chilling of lightning Myths. Imagine if someone died because people were afraid to give CPR!

Myth: If outside in a thunderstorm, you should seek shelter under a tree to stay dry.
Fact: Being underneath a tree is the second leading cause of lightning casualties. Better to get wet than fried!

Myth: If you are in a house, you are 100% safe from lightning.
Fact: A house is a safe place to be during a thunderstorm as long as you avoid anything that conducts electricity. This means staying off corded phones, electrical appliances, wires, TV cables, computers, plumbing, metal doors and windows. Windows are hazardous for two reasons: wind generated during a thunderstorm can blow objects into the window, breaking it and causing glass to shatter and second, in older homes, in rare instances, lightning can come in cracks in the sides of windows.

Myth: If thunderstorms threaten while you are outside playing a game, it is okay to finish it before seeking shelter.
Fact: Many lightning casualties occur because people do not seek shelter soon enough. No game is worth death or life-long injuries. Seek proper shelter immediately if you hear thunder. Adults are responsible for the safety of children.

Myth: Structures with metal, or metal on the body (jewelry, cell phones,Mp3 players, watches, etc), attract lightning.
Fact: Height, pointy shape, and isolation are the dominant factors controlling where a lightning bolt will strike. The presence of metal makes absolutely no difference on where lightning strikes. Mountains are made of stone but get struck by lightning many times a year. When lightning threatens, take proper protective action immediately by seeking a safe shelter – don’t waste time removing metal. While metal does not attract lightning, it does conduct it so stay away from metal fences, railing, bleachers, etc.

Myth: If trapped outside and lightning is about to strike, I should lie flat on the ground.
Fact: Lying flat increases your chance of being affected by potentially deadly ground current. If you are caught outside in a thunderstorm, you keep moving toward a safe shelter.

 

8-26 Bolt from the blue - noaa

 

5 Ways People Are Struck By Lightning

1.  DIRECT STRIKE - A person struck directly by lightning becomes a part of the main lightning discharge channel. Most often, direct strikes occur to victims who are in open areas. Direct strikes are not as common as the other ways people are struck by lightning, but they are potentially the most deadly. In most direct strikes, a portion of the current moves along and just over the skin surface (called flashover) and a portion of the current moves through the body-usually through the cardiovascular and/or nervous systems. The heat produced when lightning moves over the skin can produce burns, but the current moving through the body is of greatest concern. While the ability to survive any lightning strike is related to immediate medical attention, the amount of current moving through the body is also a factor.

animation of direct lightning strike

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.  SIDE FLASH -   -A side flash (also called a side splash) occurs when lightning strikes a taller object near the victim and a portion of the current jumps from taller object to the victim. In essence, the person acts as a “short circuit” for some of energy in the lightning discharge. Side flashes generally occur when the victim is within a foot or two of the object that is struck. Most often, side flash victims have taken shelter under a tree to avoid rain or hail.

animation of side lightning strike

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.  GROUND CURRENT –  When lightning strikes a tree or other object, much of the energy travels outward from the strike in and along the ground surface. This is known as the ground current. Anyone outside near a lightning strike is potentially a victim of ground current. In addition, ground current can travels in garage floors with conductive materials. Because the ground current affects a much larger area than the other causes of lightning casualties, the ground current causes the most lightning deaths and injuries. animation 2 of ground current direct lightning strikeGround current also kills many farm animals. Typically, the lightning enters the body at the contact point closest to the lightning strike, travels through the cardiovascular and/or nervous systems, and exits the body at the contact point farthest from the lightning. The greater the distance between contact points, the greater the potential for death or serious injury. Because large farm animals have a relatively large body-span, ground current from a nearby lightning strike is often fatal to livestock.

 

 

 

 

4.  CONDUCTION – Lightning can travel long distances in wires or other metal surfaces. Metal does not attract lightning, but it provides a path for the lightning to follow. Most indoor lightning casualties and some outdoor casualties are due to conduction. Whether inside or outside, anyone in contact with anything connected to metal wires, plumbing, or metal surfaces that extend outside is at risk. This includes anything that plugs into an electrical outlet, water faucets and showers, corded phones, and windows and doors.

animation of conduction lightning strike

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.  STREAMERS - While not as common as the other types of lightning injuries, people caught in “streamers” are at risk of being killed or injured by lightning. Streamers develop as the downward-moving leader approaches the ground. Typically, only one of the streamers makes contact with the leader as it approaches the ground and provides the path for the bright return stroke; however, when the main channel discharges, so do all the other streamers in the area. If a person is part of one of these streamers, they could be killed or injured during the streamer discharge even though the lightning channel was not completed between the cloud and the upward streamer. See Robert’s story as an example of a streamer injury.

animation of streamers lightning strike


Heat Advisory Out For Eastern Areas

August 22nd, 2014 at 1:31 pm by under Weather

NOAA













beat the heat













A HEAT ADVISORY IS IN EFFECT FROM AUSTIN/SAN ANTONIO NWS OFFICES FROM 1PM-7PM FOR FAYETTE COUNTY.


URGENT - WEATHER MESSAGE
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE AUSTIN/SAN ANTONIO TX
334 AM CDT FRI AUG 22 2014

...POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS HEAT INDICES TODAY...

.WARM TEMPERATURES AND HIGH DEW POINTS WILL COMBINE TO RESULT IN
HIGH AFTERNOON AND EVENING HEAT INDEX VALUES FROM 105 TO 108
ACROSS THE SOUTHEAST PORTIONS OF CENTRAL TEXAS. THE DANGEROUS HEAT
INDICES WILL BE ALONG AND SOUTH OF A LINE FROM LA GRANGE TO
GONZALES TO FLORESVILLE.

heat index
















FAYETTE-WILSON-KARNES-GONZALES-DE WITT-LAVACA-
INCLUDING THE CITIES OF...LA GRANGE...FLORESVILLE...KARNES CITY...
GONZALES...CUERO...HALLETTSVILLE
334 AM CDT FRI AUG 22 2014

...HEAT ADVISORY IN EFFECT FROM 1 PM THIS AFTERNOON TO 7 PM CDT
THIS EVENING...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN AUSTIN/SAN ANTONIO HAS ISSUED A
HEAT ADVISORY...WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM 1 PM THIS AFTERNOON TO
7 PM CDT THIS EVENING.

* TEMPERATURE...HEAT INDICES OF 105 TO 108 DEGREES DURING THE
  AFTERNOON AND EARLY EVENING HOURS.

* IMPACTS...EXTENDED OUTDOOR ACTIVITY COULD LEAD TO
  DEHYDRATION...HEAT EXHAUSTION OR HEAT STROKE IF PROPER
  PRECAUTIONS ARE NOT TAKEN.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

TAKE EXTRA PRECAUTIONS IF YOU WORK OR SPEND TIME OUTSIDE. WHEN
POSSIBLE...RESCHEDULE STRENUOUS ACTIVITIES TO EARLY MORNING OR
EVENING. KNOW THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HEAT EXHAUSTION AND HEAT
STROKE. WEAR LIGHT WEIGHT AND LOOSE FITTING CLOTHING WHEN
POSSIBLE AND DRINK PLENTY OF WATER. TO REDUCE RISK DURING OUTDOOR
WORK THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION RECOMMENDS
SCHEDULING FREQUENT REST BREAKS IN SHADED OR AIR CONDITIONED
ENVIRONMENTS. ANYONE OVERCOME BY HEAT SHOULD BE MOVED TO A COOL
AND SHADED LOCATION. HEAT STROKE IS AN EMERGENCY...CALL 911.

HERE'S A LINK TO NOAA'S "BEAT THE HEAT" SAFETY PAGE:  http://www.nws.noaa.gov/os/heat/index.shtml



Updated Atlantic Hurricane Season Outlook Released

August 7th, 2014 at 12:29 pm by under Weather

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NOAA’s updated Atlantic hurricane season outlook calls for an increased chance of a below-normal season

 

August 7, 2014
Forecasters with NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center raised the likelihood for a below-normal season in today’s update to the Atlantic Hurricane Season Outlook. The update predicts a 70 percent chance of a below-normal season, a 25 percent chance of a near-normal season and only a five percent chance of an above-normal season. The probabilities in the initial outlook issued on May 22 were 50 percent, 40 percent and 10 percent, respectively.
“We are more confident that a below-normal season will occur because atmospheric and oceanic conditions that suppress cyclone formation have developed and will persist through the season.” said Gerry Bell, Ph.D., lead seasonal hurricane forecaster at NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center, a division of the National Weather Service. “Nonetheless, tropical


storms and hurricanes can strike the U.S. during below-normal seasons, as we have already seen this year when Arthur made landfall in North Carolina a
s a category-2 hurricane. We urge everyone to
remain prepared and be on alert throughout the season.”
The primary factors influencing the increased chance of a below-normal season are:
  • Overall atmospheric conditions are not favorable for storm development. This includes strong vertical wind shear, a weaker West African monsoon, and the combination of increased atmospheric stability and sinking motion. These conditions mean fewer tropical systems are spawned off the African coast, and those that do form are less likely to become hurricanes. These conditions are stronger than originally predicted in May and are expected to last mid-August through October, the peak months of the hurricane season;
  • Overall oceanic conditions are not favorable for storm development. This includes below-average temperatures across the Tropical Atlantic, which are exceptionally cool relative to the remainder of the global Tropics. This cooling is even stronger than models predicted in May and is expected to persist through the hurricane season; and
  • El Niño is still likely to develop and to suppress storm development by increasing vertical wind shear, stability and sinking motion in the atmosphere.
The updated hurricane season outlook, which includes the activity to-date of hurricanes Arthur and Bertha, predicts a 70 percent chance of the following ranges: 7 to 12 named storms (top winds of 39 mph or higher), including 3 to 6 hurricanes (top winds of 74 mph or higher), of which 0 to 2 could become major hurricanes (Category 3, 4, 5; winds of at least 111 mph).
These ranges are centered below the 30-year seasonal averages of 12 named storms, six hurricanes and three major hurricanes. The initial outlook in May predicted 8 to 13 named storms, 3 to 6 hurricanes and 1 to 2 major hurricanes.

The Atlantic hurricane region comprises the North Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. NOAA’s seasonal hurricane outlook is not a hurricane landfall forecast; it does not predict how many storms will hit land or where a storm will strike. Forecasts for individual storms and their impacts will be provided throughout the season by NOAA’s National Hurricane Center.

 

The Climate Prediction Center also continued the El Niño watch today in its scheduled monthly El Niño/Southern Oscillation Diagnostic Discussion. Forecasters note that although sea surface temperatures across the central equatorial Pacific have recently returned to near average, this cooling is expected to be temporary. El Niño is now favored to emerge during August-October, and to peak at weak strength during the late fall and early winter. The likelihood of El Niño during August-October has decreased to 55 percent (from 75 percent in May), and its likelihood during the fall and winter has decreased to about 65 percent (from near 80 percent).


Tuesday Morning Tropical Update

August 5th, 2014 at 6:09 am by under Weather

Here is the latest from the National Hurricane Center, as they discuss the three current storms that are churning in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.  Also, there is a disturbance in the Pacific that is following the same line as the other 2 storms, and is expected to develop in the near future.  We’ll briefly touch on that as well.  

We start with Bertha in the Atlantic:

Bertha Now

SUMMARY OF 500 AM EDT...0900 UTC...INFORMATION
----------------------------------------------
LOCATION...33.4N 72.9W
ABOUT 475 MI...765 KM W OF BERMUDA
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...65 MPH...100 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT...NNE OR 15 DEGREES AT 22 MPH...35 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1005 MB...29.68 INCHES

WATCHES AND WARNINGS
--------------------
THERE ARE NO COASTAL WATCHES OR WARNINGS IN EFFECT.

DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
------------------------------
AT 500 AM EDT...0900 UTC...THE CENTER OF TROPICAL STORM BERTHA WAS
LOCATED NEAR LATITUDE 33.4 NORTH...LONGITUDE 72.9 WEST. BERTHA IS
MOVING TOWARD THE NORTH-NORTHEAST NEAR 22 MPH...35 KM/H. A TURN
TOWARD THE NORTHEAST WITH INCREASING FORWARD SPEED IS EXPECTED
TO OCCUR LATER TODAY...AND CONTINUE THROUGH WEDNESDAY.  ON THE
FORECAST TRACK...BERTHA WILL PASS ABOUT MIDWAY BETWEEN THE U.S.
EAST COAST AND BERMUDA LATER THIS MORNING.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS HAVE DECREASED TO NEAR 65 MPH...100 KM/H...
WITH HIGHER GUSTS...OVER A SMALL AREA NORTHEAST OF THE CENTER.
GRADUAL WEAKENING IS FORECAST DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS.

TROPICAL-STORM-FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 125
MILES...205 KM...PRIMARILY TO THE EAST OF THE CENTER.

THE MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE RECENTLY REPORTED BY AN AIR FORCE

Bertha Track

Now to the Pacific Ocean and the trio of storms there:

Pacific Storms Now

Hurricane Iselle:

SUMMARY OF 200 AM PDT...0900 UTC...INFORMATION
----------------------------------------------
LOCATION...15.9N 138.6W
ABOUT 1115 MI...1795 KM E OF HILO HAWAII
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...125 MPH...205 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT...W OR 270 DEGREES AT 8 MPH...13 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...955 MB...28.20 INCHES

WATCHES AND WARNINGS
--------------------
THERE ARE NO COASTAL WATCHES OR WARNINGS IN EFFECT.

INTERESTS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS SHOULD MONITOR THE PROGRESS OF
ISELLE.  WATCHES MAY BE REQUIRED FOR PORTIONS OF THE ISLANDS BY
TONIGHT OR EARLY WEDNESDAY.

DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
------------------------------
AT 200 AM PDT...0900 UTC...THE CENTER OF HURRICANE ISELLE WAS
LOCATED NEAR LATITUDE 15.9 NORTH...LONGITUDE 138.6 WEST. ISELLE IS
MOVING TOWARD THE WEST NEAR 8 MPH...13 KM/H...AND THIS GENERAL
MOTION IS EXPECTED TO CONTINUE THIS MORNING.  ISELLE SHOULD TURN
TOWARD THE WEST-NORTHWEST AT A FASTER FORWARD SPEED LATER TODAY AND
WEDNESDAY.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS ARE NEAR 125 MPH...205 KM/H...WITH HIGHER
GUSTS.  ISELLE IS A CATEGORY THREE HURRICANE ON THE SAFFIR-SIMPSON
HURRICANE WIND SCALE.  FURTHER WEAKENING IS FORECAST DURING THE
NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS.

HURRICANE FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 35 MILES...55 KM...FROM
THE CENTER...AND TROPICAL STORM FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 105
MILES...165 KM.

THE ESTIMATED MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE IS 955 MB...28.20 INCHES.

Iselle Path

Tropical Storm Julio:

SUMMARY OF 200 AM PDT...0900 UTC...INFORMATION
----------------------------------------------
LOCATION...13.6N 123.7W
ABOUT 1110 MI...1785 KM WSW OF THE SOUTHERN TIP OF BAJA CALIFORNIA
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...60 MPH...95 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT...W OR 275 DEGREES AT 15 MPH...24 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1000 MB...29.53 INCHES

WATCHES AND WARNINGS
--------------------
THERE ARE NO COASTAL WATCHES OR WARNINGS IN EFFECT.

DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
------------------------------
AT 200 AM PDT...0900 UTC...THE CENTER OF TROPICAL STORM JULIO WAS
LOCATED NEAR LATITUDE 13.6 NORTH...LONGITUDE 123.7 WEST. JULIO IS
MOVING TOWARD THE WEST NEAR 15 MPH...24 KM/H...AND THIS GENERAL
MOTION IS EXPECTED TO CONTINUE FOR THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS ARE NEAR 60 MPH...95 KM/H...WITH HIGHER
GUSTS.  STRENGTHENING IS FORECAST DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS AND
JULIO IS EXPECTED TO BECOME A HURRICANE ON WEDNESDAY.

TROPICAL STORM FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 105 MILES...165 KM
FROM THE CENTER.

THE ESTIMATED MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE IS 1000 MB...29.53 INCHES.

Julio Path

Disturbance 1:  30% Chance of Cyclone Formation Within 48 hours:

Disturbance 1 Now

1. A small low pressure system is located several hundred miles
south-southeast of Acapulco, Mexico.  Shower and thunderstorm
activity has increased and become more concentrated near the center
of circulation during the past several hours, and  upper-level winds
are expected to gradually improve over the next few days while the
system moves west-northwestward at 10 to 15 mph.
* Formation chance through 48 hours...medium...30 percent.
* Formation chance through 5 days...medium...30 percent.

Our next Tropical Depression? The NWS thinks there’s a good chance.

July 29th, 2014 at 8:34 am by under Weather

NEXT TD

Tropical Weather Outlook Text

TROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
800 AM EDT TUE JUL 29 2014

For the North Atlantic...Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico:

1. Satellite images indicate that showers and thunderstorms
associated with an area of low pressure located about 1600 miles
east of the southern Windward Islands continue to become better
organized.  This system could develop into a tropical depression
later today or tomorrow while it moves westward or
west-northwestward at 10 to 15 mph.
* Formation chance through 48 hours...high...70 percent.
* Formation chance through 5 days...high...80 percent.

TD PATH

 

IF this storm comes together it’s forecast path has it traveling toward the Gulf!


Beating The Heat: Safety Tips

July 21st, 2014 at 7:29 am by under Weather

1 SPC

If you plan on being out and about in summer, chances are you’ll be exposed to a lot of sun and higher temperatures.

Each year, heat kills at least 650 people on average in the United States — more than tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, lightning, or any other weather event combined.

“Heat can be a silent killer because it doesn’t topple trees or rip roofs off houses like tornadoes and hurricanes,” says Eli Jacks, chief of fire and public weather services with NOAA’s National Weather Service. “Nevertheless, it’s a dangerous weather condition for which people should prepare.”

How much heat can a person safely endure? It depends.

Certain groups of people should be especially careful during hot weather conditions. For example, city-dwellers and those living in the upper floors of tall buildings or in heat-prone regions are most at-risk for heat-related illness. People who have difficulty getting around or who have health conditions are particularly susceptible. The elderly and the very young also merit special attention during periods of high heat and humidity.

The National Weather Service and the  Occupational Safety and Health Administration have partnered again this year to increase awareness for outdoor workers and their employers during excessive heat events.  As part of this effort, the National Weather Service will incorporate specific outdoor worker safety precautions when heat advisories and warnings are issued.

 

083007_hot_thermometer

By taking some precautions, you can stay healthy while enjoying the great outdoors this summer:

1. Be informed and stay alert

Pay close attention to heat advisories or warnings that have been issued for your community.

  • NOAA’s National Weather Service continually updates heat-related advisories and warnings online at weather.gov. (Click on “Excessive Heat Warning” and “Heat Advisory” under the U.S. map — if there are no current warnings or advisories in the United States, nothing will appear).
  • NOAA issues excessive heat warnings when weather conditions pose an imminent threat to life andheat advisories when weather conditions are expected to cause significant discomfort or inconvenience or — if caution is not taken — become life threatening.
  • If you do not have Internet access, you can get heat advisory and warning information by watching your local television or radio newscast or by purchasing a NOAA weather radio and tuning into NOAA Weather Radio All-Hazards.
  • Use the temperature and humidity to figure out the heat index for your area, a measure that tells us how hot it feels.

2. Plan for periods of extreme heat

  • Visit your physician for a check-up to find out if you have a health condition that may be exacerbated by hot weather.
  • Service your air conditioner before hot weather arrives, and obtain window fans to help cool your home.
  • Know where to go when weather heats up. Find cool indoor places to spend time on hot summer days, such as a local library, shopping mall, museum or aquarium.

3. Know what to do and what not to do during hot weather

  • DO - Slow down, and reduce strenuous activity. Mow the lawn or garden in the early morning or late evening instead of midday.
  • DO - Dress in lightweight, nonrestrictive, light-colored clothing.
  • DO - Drink plenty of water or other nonalcoholic fluids.
  • DO - Eat light, easy-to-digest foods.
  • DO - Seek out shade if you have to be outdoors for extended periods. Spend more time in air-conditioned places.
  • DO - Check on elderly neighbors, friends and relatives to make sure they are okay.
  • DO - When outside, take frequent dips in the ocean or pool, or mist yourself with a water bottle. When inside, take frequent cool baths or showers and use cold compresses to cool off.
  • DO - Apply high-SPF sunscreen frequently when outdoors.
  • DO - Seek immediate medical attention if you experience symptoms of heat illness. (See chart below for symptoms, likely conditions and treatment.)

keep calm

However, please remember:

  • DO NOT leave children, the elderly, or pets in the car for any reason, for any length of time. A dark dashboard or seat can easily reach temperatures in the range of 180 to more than 200 degrees F!
  • DO NOT stay in the sun for long periods.
  • DO NOT take salt tablets unless directed by a physician.
  • AVOID alcoholic beverages; they can dehydrate you and increase your risk of heat stroke and other potentially fatal heat-related illnesses.

4. Know the warning signs of heat-related illness

Excessive heat exposure can raise your body temperature to unhealthy levels and may make you ill — it can also be deadly. Take the precautions listed above and be on the lookout for these warning signs that you may be in trouble:

Symptom Likely Condition Treatment
Painful muscle cramps and spasms, usually in muscles of legs and abdomen. Heavy sweating. Heat cramps Apply firm pressure on cramping muscles or gently massage to relieve spasm.

Give sips of water; if nausea occurs, discontinue water intake.

Consult with a clinician or physician if individual has fluid restrictions (e.g., dialysis patients).

Heavy sweating, weakness,
cool skin, pale and clammy. Weak pulse. Normal temperature possible. Possible muscle cramps, dizziness, fainting, nausea and vomiting.
Heat exhaustion Move individual out of sun, lay him or her down, and loosen clothing.

Apply cool, wet cloths.

Fan or move individual to air conditioned room.

Give sips of water; if nausea occurs, discontinue water intake.

If vomiting continues, seek immediate medical attention. Consult with a clinician or physician if individual has fluid restrictions (e.g., dialysis patients).

Altered mental state. Possible throbbing headache, confusion, nausea and dizziness. High body temperature (106°F or higher). Rapid and strong pulse. Possible unconsciousness. Skin may be hot and dry, or patient may be sweating. Sweating likely especially if patient was previously involved in vigorous activity. Heat stroke Heat stroke is a severe medical emergency.

Summon emergency medical assistance or get the individual to a hospital immediately.

Delay can be fatal.

Move individual to a cooler, preferably air-conditioned, environment.

Reduce body temperature with a water mister and fan or sponging.

Use air conditioners. Use fans if heat index temperatures are below the high 90s. Use extreme caution.

Remove clothing. If temperature rises again, repeat process. Do not give fluids.

 

 

 


National Weather Service Rainfall Total Summary From 7/17-7/18

July 18th, 2014 at 12:50 pm by under Weather

890

SXUS54 KEWX 181618

LCOEWX

 

COCORAHS PRECIPITATION SUMMARY

NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE AUSTIN/SAN ANTONIO TX

1115 AM CDT FRI JUL 18 2014

 

COCORAHS PRECIPITATION REPORTS

THESE REPORTS ARE CONSIDERED SUPPLEMENTAL AND UNOFFICIAL

VALUES ARE FOR THE PREVIOUS 24 HOURS ENDING AROUND 7 AM LOCAL TIME

 

.B EWX 0718 C DH07/PP/SF/SD/SW

:

:COCORAHS PRECIPITATION REPORTS FOR THE LOCAL AREA

:

:                                               SNOW   SNOW  WATER

:                                        PCPN   FALL  DEPTH  EQUIV

:

TX-TV-201 : AUSTIN 4.2 ESE           *   : 8.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-118 : AUSTIN 4.5 ENE           *   : 5.71 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-47  : AUSTIN 4.7 E(JORDANPK)   *   : 5.53 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-159 : AUSTIN 1.0 NNE           *   : 5.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-88  : CEDAR PARK 1.5 WNW       *   : 5.21 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-106 : ROUND ROCK 4.7 ESE       *   : 5.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-11 : TIMBERWOOD PARK 7.7 ENE  *   : 5.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-167 : AUSTIN 3.0 E             *   : 5.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-166 : CEDAR PARK 2.4 WNW       *   : 4.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-16  : CEDAR PARK 2.7 SSW       *   : 4.75 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-178 : ROUND ROCK 3.6 E         *   : 4.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-10  : BOERNE 6.0 WSW           *   : 4.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-111: BULVERDE 5.5 ENE         *   : 4.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-95 : BULVERDE 4.2 ENE         *   : 4.48 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-14  : AUSTIN 2.9 NE(LAMAR&ARPT)*   : 4.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-10  : AUSTIN 1.7 NNW(45TH&LP1) *   : 4.35 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-176 : AUSTIN 2.4 N             *   : 4.24 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-02  : AUSTIN 2.8 N(ALLANDALE)  *   : 4.21 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-96  : GEORGETOWN 4.6 NNW       *   : 4.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-41  : CEDAR PARK 1.0 ESE       *   : 4.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FR-02  : PEARSALL 7.9 NNW         *   : 4.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-115 : GEORGETOWN 7.4 WSW       *   : 4.07 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-12  : BOERNE 4.0 WSW           *   : 4.05 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-14 : HELOTES 1.0 ENE          *   : 4.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-183 : CEDAR PARK 3.1 SSW       *   : 4.02 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-78  : GEORGETOWN 8.0 W         *   : 4.01 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-146 : LEANDER 2.2 ESE          *   : 4.01 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-87  : AUSTIN 3.9 NNE           *   : 4.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FR-10  : PEARSALL 21.1 WNW        *   : 3.96 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-156 : GEORGETOWN 4.9 NW        *   : 3.92 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-28 : LEON VALLEY 1.6 N        *   : 3.88 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-142 : LEANDER 3.4 NNE          *   : 3.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-170 : HUTTO 1.4 SW             *   : 3.83 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-24 : BULVERDE 4.3 ESE         *   : 3.81 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-129: TIMBERWOOD PARK 3.0 SW   *   : 3.80 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-57  : AUSTIN 3.3 N(LP1&FARWST) *   : 3.80 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-175 : GEORGETOWN 6.7 NW        *   : 3.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-05  : KENDALIA 5.2 SSW         *   : 3.76 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-192: HELOTES 2.4 NNW          *   : 3.74 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-174: HELOTES 1.3 NE           *   : 3.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-49  : WELLS BRANCH 4.2 S       *   : 3.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-148 : ROUND ROCK 3.0 NE        *   : 3.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-171 : GEORGETOWN 7.3 W         *   : 3.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-14  : BRUSHY CREEK 2.3 SW      *   : 3.62 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-55  : ANDERSON MILL 1.1 ENE    *   : 3.61 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-136 : PFLUGERVILLE 4.5 NE      *   : 3.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-118 : BRUSHY CREEK 2.3 SW      *   : 3.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-15  : KENDALIA 5.4 S           *   : 3.52 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-36 : HONDO 11.0 E             *   : 3.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-152 : AUSTIN 0.8 WSW           *   : 3.48 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-98  : CEDAR PARK 3.0 S         *   : 3.46 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-253: CASTLE HILLS 1.9 NE      *   : 3.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-39  : ROUND ROCK 1.0 S         *   : 3.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-135 : GEORGETOWN 8.9 E         *   : 3.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-163: LEON VALLEY 1.9 WNW      *   : 3.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-163 : PFLUGERVILLE 2.5 NNE     *   : 3.35 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-162 : LIBERTY HILL 1.2 N       *   : 3.35 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-95 : HELOTES 3.7 SSE          *   : 3.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-08  : TAYLOR 0.9 NNW           *   : 3.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-74  : GEORGETOWN 3.0 ESE       *   : 3.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-143: ALAMO HEIGHTS 0.7 NNW    *   : 3.19 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-43  : PFLUGERVILLE 2.6 N       *   : 3.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-176: SAN ANTONIO 5.4 SW       *   : 3.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-49  : FREDERICKSBURG 8.0 WNW   *   : 3.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-27  : BOERNE 8.8 NE            *   : 3.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-60  : BOERNE 8.4 ENE           *   : 3.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-61  : ANDERSON MILL 1.4 NW     *   : 3.09 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-44  : JOLLYVILLE 1.2 WNW       *   : 3.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-94  : BOERNE 7.8 NE            *   : 3.05 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-208 : PFLUGERVILLE 3.3 E       *   : 3.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-56 : DRIFTWOOD 2.8 NNW        *   : 3.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-22  : LIBERTY HILL 0.6 NNW     *   : 3.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-102 : ROUND ROCK 3.4 E         *   : 3.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-110 : LIBERTY HILL 4.3 ENE     *   : 3.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-44 : PIPE CREEK 3.5 NNW       *   : 2.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-146: FAIR OAKS RANCH 0.4 WSW  *   : 2.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-176 : GEORGETOWN 6.1 NNW       *   : 2.94 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-61 : BASTROP 7.6 N            *   : 2.93 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-49 : MCDADE 4.6 SSW           *   : 2.92 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-03 : HONDO 8.7 E              *   : 2.89 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-35  : PFLUGERVILLE 0.6 ENE     *   : 2.89 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-24  : BOERNE 2.0 WNW           *   : 2.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-27 : SCENIC OAKS 0.8 SW       *   : 2.84 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-44 : ELGIN 0.9 NW             *   : 2.83 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-145 : AUSTIN 12.7 NNW          *   : 2.83 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-30  : ANDERSON MILL 2.2 S      *   : 2.81 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-76  : PFLUGERVILLE 1.0 SSW     *   : 2.81 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-169 : ROUND ROCK 2.2 W         *   : 2.80 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-11  : GEORGETOWN 0.5 N         *   : 2.79 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-18 : HONDO 8.8 E              *   : 2.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-126 : AUSTIN 10.7 N            *   : 2.72 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-22  : BOERNE 4.7 WNW           *   : 2.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-75  : JOLLYVILLE 2.1 SSW       *   : 2.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-76  : THRALL 10.8 SSE          *   : 2.69 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-123 : AUSTIN 10.5 N            *   : 2.68 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-100: DRIFTWOOD 2.4 NNW        *   : 2.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-68  : JOLLYVILLE 1.6 SSE       *   : 2.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-150 : AUSTIN 4.5 NNE           *   : 2.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-35  : BERTRAM 6.4 ESE          *   : 2.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-212 : AUSTIN 8.5 NNW           *   : 2.61 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-75 : CIRCLE D-KC ESTATES 0.9 S*   : 2.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-95  : BOERNE 2.2 WNW           *   : 2.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-197 : LEANDER 4.4 WSW          *   : 2.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KY-03  : BRACKETTVILLE 0.1 NE     *   : 2.59 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-86  : AUSTIN 4.7 NNE           *   : 2.57 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-43 : BANDERA 7.4 ENE          *   : 2.56 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-38 : HELOTES 4.5 WSW          *   : 2.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-161 : TAYLOR 2.4 S             *   : 2.54 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-31 : CHINA GROVE 4.6 WSW      *   : 2.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-17  : TAYLOR 8.5 SE            *   : 2.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-212: HOLLYWOOD PARK 2.0 NW    *   : 2.52 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-73  : FAIR OAKS RANCH 1.8 NW   *   : 2.52 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-01  : AUSTIN 10.0 NNW(GRTHILLS)*   : 2.50 / 0.0 /  0.0 / 0.00

TX-WM-04  : GEORGETOWN 1.3 WNW       *   : 2.50 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LE-12  : LEXINGTON 2.7 SSE        *   : 2.49 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-219 : AUSTIN 7.9 N             *   : 2.47 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-70  : ROUND ROCK 1.8 SW        *   : 2.46 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-188: SAN ANTONIO 5.1 W        *   : 2.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-52  : BOERNE 2.1 WNW           *   : 2.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-273: BLOSSOM PARK 0.1 ESE     *   : 2.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-01  : GEORGETOWN 1.2 W         *   : 2.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-119 : BARTLETT 5.0 W           *   : 2.43 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-179 : GEORGETOWN 1.5 WNW       *   : 2.39 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-270: BOERNE 7.2 SE            *   : 2.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-08  : FAIR OAKS RANCH 2.2 NNW  *   : 2.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-68  : GEORGETOWN 4.5 SSE       *   : 2.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-71  : GEORGETOWN 5.8 SE        *   : 2.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-14  : FAIR OAKS RANCH 2.2 NNW  *   : 2.33 / 0.0 /  0.0 / 0.00

TX-BXR-121: SAN ANTONIO 3.0 S        *   : 2.33 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-07  : FAIR OAKS RANCH 10.0 NNE *   : 2.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-211 : AUSTIN 8.0 N(BULLRUN)    *   : 2.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-31  : FREDERICKSBURG 9.1 WSW   *   : 2.31 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-46  : FREDERICKSBURG 9.1 WSW   *   : 2.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-60 : DRIFTWOOD 5.0 S          *   : 2.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LE-05  : LEXINGTON 6.7 S          *   : 2.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-152 : CEDAR PARK 4.6 E         *   : 2.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-75 : SHAVANO PARK 1.1 W       *   : 2.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-65 : HOLLYWOOD PARK 5.2 NE    *   : 2.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-55 : MOUNTAIN CITY 6.7 WNW    *   : 2.24 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-56  : BOERNE 10.5 ENE          *   : 2.22 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-83  : MANOR 5.1 SSE            *   : 2.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-41 : D’HANIS 2.4 NNE          *   : 2.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-09  : WEST LAKE HILLS 2.4 NNW  *   : 2.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-65  : BOERNE 1.2 E             *   : 2.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-25 : RIO MEDINA 5.5 NNW       *   : 2.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-218: CASTLE HILLS 0.7 NW      *   : 2.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-214 : AUSTIN 9.6 WNW           *   : 2.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-48 : CANYON LAKE 8.1 NW       *   : 2.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-59  : BOERNE 13.7 NE           *   : 2.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LE-13  : LEXINGTON 8.8 SW         *   : 2.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-27 : MICO 5.0 E               *   : 2.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-104 : GEORGETOWN 1.6 W         *   : 2.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-117 : AUSTIN 5.9 NW            *   : 2.05 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-211: SHAVANO PARK 3.4 SW      *   : 2.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-83 : PAIGE 4.6 SW             *   : 2.02 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LE-15  : LEXINGTON 2.3 SSW        *   : 2.02 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-61  : JONESTOWN 0.8 NE         *   : 2.01 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-27  : LEANDER 1.9 WSW          *   : 2.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-02 : ELGIN 4.4 SSE            *   : 1.93 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-264: ATASCOSA 2.3 NE          *   : 1.92 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-23 : DEVINE 0.4 S             *   : 1.92 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-215: HOLLYWOOD PARK 4.5 NE    *   : 1.91 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-21 : HOLLYWOOD PARK 1.8 N     *   : 1.90 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-198 : AUSTIN 4.0 SSE           *   : 1.90 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-48  : THRALL 10.5 SSE          *   : 1.86 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-21  : JOURDANTON 5.2 NNW       *   : 1.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-75 : BERTRAM 3.7 SE           *   : 1.84 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-10 : MICO 6.4 WSW             *   : 1.84 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-01 : ELGIN 3.5 NNE            *   : 1.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KY-04  : BRACKETTVILLE 0.8 S      *   : 1.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-28  : FLORESVILLE 8.9 WNW      *   : 1.74 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-03  : HARPER 10.1 SSE          *   : 1.71 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-138: LEON VALLEY 2.8 W        *   : 1.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-130: BOERNE 10.4 E            *   : 1.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-46 : BASTROP 4.9 NE           *   : 1.68 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-30 : KYLE 1.1 SSE             *   : 1.68 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-135: TERRELL HILLS 1.0 NE     *   : 1.67 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-78 : BASTROP 4.7 NE           *   : 1.66 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-16 : CASTROVILLE 4.0 SW       *   : 1.64 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-42 : BASTROP 5.7 NE           *   : 1.62 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-25  : PLEASANTON 9.1 NE        *   : 1.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-184: SAN ANTONIO 8.0 NNW      *   : 1.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-53  : BOERNE 10.6 NE           *   : 1.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-10  : ELMENDORF 5.6 ENE        *   : 1.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-30  : INGRAM 10.2 NW           *   : 1.59 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-124 : LIBERTY HILL 4.7 W       *   : 1.59 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-26  : GEORGETOWN 4.7 NNE       *   : 1.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-86 : BASTROP 5.1 NE           *   : 1.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-48 : HOLLYWOOD PARK 1.7 ESE   *   : 1.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-39  : FLORESVILLE 9.4 NW       *   : 1.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-28  : LYTLE 2.0 SSE            *   : 1.50 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KY-18  : BRACKETTVILLE 2.0 SSW    *   : 1.50 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-29 : BANDERA 4.7 NE           *   : 1.49 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-33 : HONDO 3.4 S              *   : 1.48 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-45  : LA VERNIA 3.6 SSW        *   : 1.47 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-90 : WIMBERLEY 5.3 N          *   : 1.46 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-05  : JOURDANTON 6.0 SSW       *   : 1.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-01  : INGRAM 14.2 NW           *   : 1.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-44 : NATALIA 5.4 SSE          *   : 1.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-171 : AUSTIN 3.7 SSW           *   : 1.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-18  : PLEASANTON 0.4 E         *   : 1.43 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-51 : SPRING BRANCH 2.4 SW     *   : 1.42 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-217 : TANGLEWOOD FOREST 2.7 E  *   : 1.42 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-34  : POTH 0.6 SSE             *   : 1.42 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-205: CONVERSE 1.6 NW          *   : 1.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-88 : MCDADE 1.4 NNE           *   : 1.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-26  : POTEET 4.9 W             *   : 1.34 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-86 : KYLE 2.0 SE              *   : 1.34 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-116: KYLE 2.5 NW              *   : 1.34 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-24  : ROCKSPRINGS 18.4 WNW     *   : 1.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-92 : KYLE 2.5 NW              *   : 1.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-58 : CEDAR CREEK 5.9 N        *   : 1.31 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-19 : SAN MARCOS 2.9 WNW       *   : 1.31 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-32 : HOLLYWOOD PARK 4.4 E     *   : 1.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-180: LEON SPRINGS 2.6 N       *   : 1.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-25 : GARDEN RIDGE 1.8 WNW     *   : 1.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-71  : BOERNE 6.5 N             *   : 1.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-111 : AUSTIN 10.8 WSW          *   : 1.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-122 : AUSTIN 5.6 WSW           *   : 1.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-155 : AUSTIN 4.6 SSW           *   : 1.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-05  : FLORESVILLE 8.1 NNW      *   : 1.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-60 : BRIGGS 3.9 NNE           *   : 1.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-66 : ELGIN 11.5 SW            *   : 1.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-241: LIVE OAK 4.6 WNW         *   : 1.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-160 : ROLLINGWOOD 2.8 SW       *   : 1.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-29  : FLORESVILLE 0.7 S        *   : 1.24 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-50  : SISTERDALE 1.7 SE        *   : 1.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-27  : FLORESVILLE 0.7 SW       *   : 1.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-28 : NATALIA 0.4 NE           *   : 1.22 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-01  : POTEET 4.1 ENE           *   : 1.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-279: LIVE OAK 0.8 SSW         *   : 1.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-38  : JOURDANTON 0.6 NW        *   : 1.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FY-02  : ROUND TOP 0.2 W          *   : 1.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-59  : TANGLEWOOD FOREST 0.6 NE *   : 1.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-165 : AUSTIN 5.7 SSW           *   : 1.16 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-38 : PIPE CREEK 3.4 SW        *   : 1.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-87 : BASTROP 6.2 W            *   : 1.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-221: SELMA 3.9 WNW            *   : 1.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-14  : NEW BERLIN 6.7 SE        *   : 1.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-08 : PIPE CREEK 3.0 NW        *   : 1.07 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-41  : SCHERTZ 2.0 NNW          *   : 1.07 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-45  : HARPER 6.5 SW            *   : 1.07 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-125 : MANOR 5.5 SSE            *   : 1.06 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-48  : HARPER 3.2 W             *   : 1.05 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-58  : ANDICE 1.6 SW            *   : 1.05 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-77  : BOERNE 5.3 N             *   : 1.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-69 : CEDAR CREEK 1.0 ENE      *   : 1.01 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-24 : PIPE CREEK 4.9 SSW       *   : 1.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-48 : BURNET 3.7 N             *   : 1.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-21 : SAN MARCOS 7.1 W         *   : 1.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-164 : AUSTIN 4.1 SW            *   : 1.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-117: KYLE 7.8 ENE             *   : 0.98 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KY-07  : BRACKETTVILLE 2.0 W      *   : 0.98 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-113 : AUSTIN 7.3 SW            *   : 0.98 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-20  : HARPER 3.3 WSW           *   : 0.97 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-33 : OATMEAL 1.7 WNW          *   : 0.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-73 : BERTRAM 5.3 N            *   : 0.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-20 : CANYON LAKE 9.2 W        *   : 0.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-45  : BOERNE 3.4 N             *   : 0.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-136: LACKLAND AFB 7.8 WNW     *   : 0.94 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-21 : D’HANIS 3.5 WSW          *   : 0.93 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-07 : SPRING BRANCH 4.0 SSE    *   : 0.92 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FY-30  : LA GRANGE 7.8 NNE        *   : 0.88 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FY-33  : FAYETTEVILLE 1.0 SW      *   : 0.88 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-61 : NEW BRAUNFELS 10.0 W     *   : 0.87 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-30  : ADKINS 6.4 SSE           *   : 0.87 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-03  : INGRAM 4.4 NW            *   : 0.86 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-02 : SPRING BRANCH 5.1 SSE    *   : 0.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-30  : KINGSLAND 1.9 WSW        *   : 0.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-112 : AUSTIN 5.7 SSE           *   : 0.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-07 : BASTROP 1.2 N            *   : 0.84 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-23  : SEGUIN 1.9 E             *   : 0.84 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-30 : BANDERA 6.4 N            *   : 0.82 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-79 : BASTROP 1.5 NW           *   : 0.82 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-73  : SCHERTZ 4.6 NNE          *   : 0.82 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-74 : BASTROP 1.2 N            *   : 0.80 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-218 : ONION CREEK 3.2 ENE      *   : 0.80 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-128: NEW BRAUNFELS 10.0 W     *   : 0.79 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-07  : HARPER 1.4 S             *   : 0.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-34  : SUNSET VALLEY 0.7 SE     *   : 0.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-60  : TANGLEWOOD FOREST 3.5 NW *   : 0.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-30 : LULING 4.4 NNW           *   : 0.77 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-37 : CANYON LAKE 2.8 N        *   : 0.77 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KS-03  : KARNES CITY 12.6 WSW     *   : 0.77 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-17  : MCQUEENEY 3.4 SW         *   : 0.75 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GZ-25  : GONZALES 0.6 S           *   : 0.75 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-37  : KINGSLAND 1.4 ESE        *   : 0.75 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-36 : BASTROP 1.0 WNW          *   : 0.74 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-47  : FREDERICKSBURG 4.6 WNW   *   : 0.74 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-17  : SUNRISE BEACH VILLAGE 0.5*   : 0.73 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-18  : FREDERICKSBURG 12.2 W    *   : 0.72 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-98 : SAN MARCOS 1.8 NW        *   : 0.72 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-46 : CIBOLO 3.9 N             *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-86 : NEW BRAUNFELS 5.2 W      *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-104: SPRING BRANCH 5.7 SE     *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-53  : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.8 S      *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-46  : LAGO VISTA 1.4 SSW       *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-54  : SUNSET VALLEY 2.0 SW     *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-49 : CANYON LAKE 5.3 SW       *   : 0.69 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-35  : MOUNTAIN HOME 13.1 SW    *   : 0.69 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-80 : NEW BRAUNFELS 6.3 NNE    *   : 0.68 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-07 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 4.3 E   *   : 0.67 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-22 : BANDERA 8.6 NNW          *   : 0.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-43 : DALE 7.6 N               *   : 0.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-68 : BASTROP 2.1 SSW          *   : 0.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-20  : SUNRISE BEACH VILLAGE 1.1*   : 0.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-04  : BOERNE 5.1 NNW           *   : 0.64 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-35 : NEW BRAUNFELS 5.5 WNW    *   : 0.63 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-09 : NEW BRAUNFELS 7.0 NNE    *   : 0.61 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-22 : BURNET 1.9 SE            *   : 0.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-24  : HORSESHOE BAY 3.1 W      *   : 0.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-10 : JOHNSON CITY 2.2 N       *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-23 : BLANCO 7.2 SE            *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-04 : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.4 SSW    *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-79 : NEW BRAUNFELS 5.0 W      *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-88  : SAN MARCOS 6.6 SSW       *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-72  : COMFORT 4.5 SE           *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-23  : KINGSLAND 0.5 S          *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-17 : WYLDWOOD 8.3 SSW         *   : 0.57 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-200 : LAKEWAY 3.5 ENE          *   : 0.57 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-12 : CANYON LAKE 2.5 W        *   : 0.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-12  : ROCKSPRINGS 8.5 WSW      *   : 0.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-56  : SEGUIN 5.0 SSE           *   : 0.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GZ-05  : GONZALES 3.8 SW          *   : 0.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-50  : INGRAM 3.1 NW            *   : 0.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-51 : BERTRAM 8.8 SSW          *   : 0.54 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-02  : ROCKSPRINGS 5.4 NW       *   : 0.54 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-28 : MANCHACA 2.1 ENE         *   : 0.54 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-107: DRIPPING SPRINGS 7.2 E   *   : 0.54 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-13 : HIGHLAND HAVEN 1.3 SW    *   : 0.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-39  : HARPER 4.9 N             *   : 0.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-59 : AUSTIN 14.7 WSW          *   : 0.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-38  : HARPER 5.4 N             *   : 0.52 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-82  : NEW BRAUNFELS 3.1 S      *   : 0.52 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-41 : BANDERA 4.0 NNW          *   : 0.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-65 : GRANITE SHOALS 0.9 S     *   : 0.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-03 : NEW BRAUNFELS 3.1 WNW    *   : 0.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-19  : ROCKSPRINGS 17.9 WSW     *   : 0.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-56 : BERTRAM 9.1 SSW          *   : 0.50 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-19  : HORSESHOE BAY 2.7 W      *   : 0.50 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-134: MARION 6.3 SW            *   : 0.49 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-34  : MCQUEENEY 0.5 ENE        *   : 0.48 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GZ-10  : GONZALES 4.5 SSE         *   : 0.48 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-52  : OAK HILL 1.1 WSW         *   : 0.48 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-81  : COMFORT 2.6 N            *   : 0.47 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-114 : AUSTIN 8.2 WSW           *   : 0.47 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-29 : NEW BRAUNFELS 5.9 NW     *   : 0.46 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-22 : CANYON LAKE 7.2 ESE      *   : 0.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-86  : SEGUIN 2.3 NE            *   : 0.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-38  : CENTER POINT 2.4 ESE     *   : 0.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-05 : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.3 NE     *   : 0.44 / 0.0 /  0.0 / 0.00

TX-GS-28  : WILLOW CITY 4.2 W        *   : 0.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GZ-16  : LEESVILLE 4.2 NE         *   : 0.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-15  : INGRAM 8.6 WSW           *   : 0.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ZV-15  : CRYSTAL CITY 0.5 ESE     *   : 0.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-25  : WILLOW CITY 4.3 W        *   : 0.43 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-132: NEW BRAUNFELS 2.2 ESE    *   : 0.42 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-87  : SEGUIN 5.1 NW            *   : 0.42 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-98 : NEW BRAUNFELS 0.6 W      *   : 0.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-DM-02  : CARRIZO SPRINGS 3.0 NNE  *   : 0.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-62  : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.4 S      *   : 0.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-135 : CREEDMOOR 1.5 NNW        *   : 0.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-40 : NEW BRAUNFELS 0.1 ENE    *   : 0.40 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-103: NEW BRAUNFELS 0.5 N      *   : 0.40 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-175 : SAN LEANNA 0.1 SSE       *   : 0.40 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-41 : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.8 NNE    *   : 0.39 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-01 : BURNET 5.4 NNW           *   : 0.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-12 : HARWOOD 4.7 NNE          *   : 0.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-60 : NEW BRAUNFELS 10.4 NW    *   : 0.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-09  : FREDERICKSBURG 1.8 NE    *   : 0.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-74 : SAN MARCOS 1.8 SSW       *   : 0.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-53 : GRANITE SHOALS 1.6 E     *   : 0.37 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-31  : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.5 SSE    *   : 0.37 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-203 : LOST CREEK 5.1 SW        *   : 0.37 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-115: NEW BRAUNFELS 1.5 NNW    *   : 0.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-81 : SMITHVILLE 0.9 E         *   : 0.35 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-141 : LAGO VISTA 1.5 SW        *   : 0.35 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-64  : SEGUIN 7.6 N             *   : 0.34 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KS-10  : RUNGE 0.1 SSW            *   : 0.33 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-36 : SPICEWOOD 2.2 NW         *   : 0.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-DW-07  : YOAKUM 6.2 WNW           *   : 0.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-03 : WIMBERLEY 4.4 E          *   : 0.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-04  : SHINER 1.9 E             *   : 0.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-54  : CENTER POINT 0.5 SE      *   : 0.31 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-05 : MARBLE FALLS 0.7 NW      *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-69 : MEADOWLAKES 0.4 NNE      *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-14 : LULING 6.9 NW            *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-113: WOODCREEK 0.5 SSW        *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-64  : INGRAM 0.7 E             *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-113 : JARRELL 4.4 W            *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-33 : BANDERA 4.0 E            *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-31 : MARBLE FALLS 5.8 NNW     *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-55 : MARBLE FALLS 1.4 NE      *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-63 : MEADOWLAKES 0.2 W        *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-11 : LULING 7.4 NE            *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KS-01  : RUNGE 0.7 ENE            *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-23 : BANDERA 3.2 W            *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-80 : BASTROP 1.7 SE           *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-29 : LOCKHART 5.2 S           *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-17 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 8.4 W   *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-65 : SAN MARCOS 6.3 WSW       *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-07  : HORSESHOE BAY 2.7 S      *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-33 : LOCKHART 5.4 NNE         *   : 0.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-26  : FREDERICKSBURG 11.4 NE   *   : 0.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-32  : FREDERICKSBURG 12.4 NE   *   : 0.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-54 : WIMBERLEY 5.2 WNW        *   : 0.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-99  : BEE CAVE 2.5 ENE         *   : 0.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-45 : MARBLE FALLS 1.0 S       *   : 0.26 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-06  : SHINER 5.8 ENE           *   : 0.26 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-26  : SHINER 4.1 NE            *   : 0.26 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-UV-19  : CAMP WOOD 5.02 SSE       *   : 0.26 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-04 : JOHNSON CITY 7.3 W       *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-12 : BLANCO 1.8 ESE           *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-24  : WILLOW CITY 0.1 W        *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-91 : WIMBERLEY 4.6 WNW        *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-27  : MOULTON 6.9 SE           *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-199 : BEE CAVE 1.8 NW          *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-20 : JOHNSON CITY 7.9 WNW     *   : 0.24 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-39 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 3.3 NE  *   : 0.24 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-62 : SPICEWOOD 2.5 ENE        *   : 0.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-10 : LOCKHART 5.2 SSE         *   : 0.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FY-32  : FLATONIA 0.4 SW          *   : 0.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-37  : FREDERICKSBURG 0.5 SW    *   : 0.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-59  : KERRVILLE 3.5 NW         *   : 0.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-58 : BURNET 5.7 WSW           *   : 0.22 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-27 : LOCKHART 4.3 NW          *   : 0.22 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-68  : KERRVILLE 1.9 NE         *   : 0.22 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-06 : SPICEWOOD 4.4 NW         *   : 0.21 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-81 : BURNET 2.8 WNW           *   : 0.21 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-24 : ROSANKY 4.5 N            *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-15 : MAXWELL 1.5 NE           *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-35 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 2.8 NNW *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-49 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 6.2 WSW *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-36  : INGRAM 5.9 WSW           *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-25  : HALLETTSVILLE 4.9 E      *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-22  : FREDERICKSBURG 1.3 SE    *   : 0.19 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-20  : KERRVILLE 1.1 SSW        *   : 0.19 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-01  : LLANO 9.2 NNW            *   : 0.19 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-23  : HALLETTSVILLE 1.6 SSE    *   : 0.19 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-40 : BURNET 6.1 WNW           *   : 0.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-34  : FREDERICKSBURG 1.0 SE    *   : 0.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-103: DRIPPING SPRINGS 6.0 NNE *   : 0.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-11  : HUNT 5.8 WSW             *   : 0.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-14 : BUCHANAN DAM 7.3 N       *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-32 : RED ROCK 5.0 ESE         *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FY-36  : LA GRANGE 4.5 SW         *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-53  : KERRVILLE 2.4 NNW        *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-26  : LLANO 0.5 ESE            *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-RL-05  : CAMP WOOD 7.3 NE         *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-18 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 6.1 WNW *   : 0.16 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-RL-08  : LEAKEY 1.5 ENE           *   : 0.16 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-133 : LAKEWAY 2.8 W            *   : 0.16 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-21  : ROCKSPRINGS 6.2 NNE      *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-63 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 1.7 NW  *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-80 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 1.4 N   *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-21  : COMFORT 8.0 NNE          *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-89  : SISTERDALE 5.7 N         *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-34  : TOW 1.6 NE               *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-25  : ROCKSPRINGS 6.2 S        *   : 0.14 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-18  : COMFORT 11.5 ENE         *   : 0.14 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-80  : COMFORT 0.9 WSW          *   : 0.14 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-17  : KERRVILLE 4.7 SSE        *   : 0.14 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-63  : KERRVILLE 4.8 WSW        *   : 0.14 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-57  : INGRAM 3.8 W             *   : 0.13 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-77 : BURNET 8.4 WNW           *   : 0.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-76  : FREDERICKSBURG 11.6 SSE  *   : 0.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-15  : STONEWALL 2.3 ENE        *   : 0.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-33  : FREDERICKSBURG 8.3 SSW   *   : 0.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-22  : KERRVILLE 2.6 SSW        *   : 0.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-65  : COMFORT 4.4 W            *   : 0.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-VV-09  : COMSTOCK 29.7 NW         *   : 0.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-11 : BLANCO 8.8 ENE           *   : 0.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-03 : BUCHANAN DAM 7.4 NNE     *   : 0.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-57 : BURNET 10.6 NW           *   : 0.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-39 : BANDERA 0.2 N            *   : 0.09 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-31 : LOCKHART 4.3 ENE         *   : 0.09 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-26  : ROCKSPRINGS 8.9 SE       *   : 0.09 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-VV-14  : LANGTRY 10.6 W           *   : 0.09 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-05  : HALLETTSVILLE 13.4 SE    *   : 0.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-22  : HALLETTSVILLE 14.8 S     *   : 0.07 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-22  : ROCKSPRINGS 11.8 ENE     *   : 0.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-02  : HALLETTSVILLE 17.1 SE    *   : 0.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-UV-17  : UTOPIA 2.0 W             *   : 0.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-02 : VANDERPOOL 1.4 SE        *   : 0.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-32 : LOCKHART 8.4 ESE         *   : 0.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-VV-16  : DEL RIO 7.8 NNW          *   : 0.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-DW-05  : CUERO 7.3 SSW            *   : 0.02 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-18 : DALE 7.3 SE              *   :    T /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KY-15  : BRACKETTVILLE 13.8 W     *   : 0.00 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM


The Latest On Super Typhoon Neoguri

July 7th, 2014 at 8:54 am by under Weather

Courtesy of Wunderground.com. Visit for the very latest updates on Super Typhoon Neoguri.

Okinawa is a small, isolated island to the southwest of the southern tip of the Japanese mainland.  Because of its’ small size and the fact it is surrounded by water, Okinawa is a vulnerable target for strong storms.   What is now Super Typhoon Neoguri is churning through the Western Pacific Ocean and at latest check has sustained winds of 150mph (just 2mph shy of what would be considered a Category 5 hurricane in the Atlantic).  Even though current forecasts have it weakening slightly before it gets there, the storm is forecast to brush close to the island and could potentially cause catastrophic damage.  Neoguri could be the most powerful storm to hit the small island in 15 years.

Here is the latest discussion (scientific) on the Super Typhoon:

6 hour summary and analysis.
   Super Typhoon (STY) 08w (neoguri), located approximately 295 nm 
south of Kadena AB, Okinawa, Japan, has tracked northwestward at 15 
knots over the past six hours. A 070600z SSMI microwave image 
reveals sty neoguri is undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle. 
Additionally, animated multispectral satellite imagery (msi) depicts 
a nearly annular eyewall has continued to expand under the influence 
of a very favorable environment. The current position is based on 
the msi animation and the microwave image with high confidence. The 
initial intensity of 135 knots is based on the current structure and 
assessment from Dvorak current intensity estimates from all 
reporting agencies. Upper-level analysis indicates the system is 
located in an area of low (05 to 10 knot) vertical wind shear and 
robust radial outflow, as evident in the water vapor imagery. Sty 
08w continues to track along the southwest extension of a deep-
layered subtropical ridge (str) to the north.
3. Forecast reasoning.
   A. There is no change to the forecast philosophy since the 
previous prognostic reasoning message.
   B. Sty 08w will continue to track northwestward over the next 12 
hours before turning northward as the str recedes with the approach 
of a mid-latitude trough from the northwest. By tau 24, sty neoguri 
will crest the ridge and recurve northeastward as a secondary trough 
further weakens the steering str. Due to very favorable 
environmental conditions, further intensification is expected over 
the next 24 hours with a peak of 145 knots. Beyond tau 36, cooling 
sea surface temperatures (sst), increasing vws ahead of the mid-
latitude westerlies, and landfall into Kyushu, Japan, will slowly 
erode the system.
   C. After tau 72, sty neoguri will commence extra-tropical 
transition and accelerate northeastward into the cold baroclinic 
zone. The increased mid-latitude interaction, decreasing SST, and 
land interaction will cause its rapid deterioration for the 
remainder of the forecast period. The available dynamic model 
guidance remains in tight agreement, lending high confidence to the 
jtwc track forecast which is positioned close to the multi-model 
consensus.


Storm Track Statistics

Date Time Lat Lon Wind (mph) Pressure Storm Type
Jul 03 00 GMT 8.9 146.8 30 -999 Tropical Depression
Jul 03 06 GMT 9.7 144.7 35 -999 Tropical Depression
Jul 03 12 GMT 10.8 143.9 35 -999 Tropical Depression
Jul 03 18 GMT 11.5 143.3 40 -999 Tropical Storm
Jul 04 00 GMT 12.5 142.2 50 -999 Tropical Storm
Jul 04 06 GMT 13.1 141.4 65 -999 Tropical Storm
Jul 04 12 GMT 13.7 140.4 70 -999 Tropical Storm
Jul 04 18 GMT 14.6 139.1 75 -999 Typhoon
Jul 05 00 GMT 15.3 138.2 105 -999 Typhoon
Jul 05 06 GMT 16.0 137.0 135 -999 Typhoon
Jul 05 12 GMT 16.7 135.8 135 -999 Typhoon
Jul 05 18 GMT 17.4 134.5 140 -999 Typhoon
Jul 06 00 GMT 18.0 132.9 140 -999 Typhoon
Jul 06 06 GMT 18.5 131.4 140 -999 Typhoon
Jul 06 12 GMT 18.9 130.3 140 -999 Typhoon
Jul 06 18 GMT 19.7 129.1 150 -999 Super Typhoon
Jul 07 00 GMT 20.4 128.2 155 -999 Super Typhoon
Jul 07 06 GMT 21.6 127.3 155 -999 Super Typhoon

 

Latest sustained winds from STY Neogury: 155mph.

Here are details from the Saffir-Simpson scale.   The storm’s category, and associated winds are compared to the damage that occurs during storms of this strength.

4
(major)
130-156 mph
113-136 kt
209-251 km/h

 

 

 

Catastrophic damage will occur: Well-built framed homes can sustain severe damage with loss of most of the roof structure and/or some exterior walls. Most trees will be snapped or uprooted and power poles downed. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Power outages will last weeks to possibly months. Most of the area will be uninhabitable for weeks or months.
5
(major)
157 mph or higher
137 kt or higher
252 km/h or higher
Catastrophic damage will occur: A high percentage of framed homes will be destroyed, with total roof failure and wall collapse. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Power outages will last for weeks to possibly months. Most of the area will be uninhabitable for weeks or months.

Forecast map for Super Typhoon Neoguri courtesy of wunderground.com.

 


NWS Lightning Safety Awareness Week

June 23rd, 2014 at 8:09 am by under Weather

For 20x the amount of info that you’ll find here, plus cool animations to help you learn, jump onto the National Weather Service’s Lightning Awareness Week page  for everything lightning/safety related!  Here is just a snip it of what you can expect!

0 FDAY 1

How Lightning Forms

Lightning is a giant spark of electricity in the atmosphere or between the atmosphere and the ground. In the initial stages of development, air acts as an insulator between the positive and negative charges in the cloud and between the cloud and the ground; however, when the differences in charges becomes too great, this insulating capacity of the air breaks down and there is a rapid discharge of electricity that we know as lightning.

Lightning can occur between opposite charges within the thunderstorm cloud (Intra Cloud Lightning) or between opposite charges in the cloud and on the ground (Cloud-To-Ground Lightning). Cloud-to-ground lightning is divided two different types of flashes depending on the charge in the cloud where the lightning originates.

Thunder

Thunder is the sound made by a flash of lightning. As lightning passes through the air it heats the air quickly. This causes the air to expand rapidly and creates the sound wave we hear as thunder. Normally, you can hear thunder about 10 miles from a lightning strike. Since lightning can strike outward 10 miles from a thunderstorm, if you hear thunder, you are likely within striking distance from the storm.

How Hot is Lightning?

It depends what the lightning is passing through. As lightning passes through air, it can heat the air to 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit (about 5 times hotter than the surface of the sun).

 

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How Far Away Was That Lightning?The sound of thunder travels about a mile every 5 seconds. If you count the seconds between the flash of lightning and the crack of thunder and divided by 5, you get the number of miles away from you (10 seconds is 2 miles).

 

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Lightning: What You Need to Know

  • NO PLACE outside is safe when thunderstorms are in the area!!
  • If you hear thunder, lightning is close enough to strike you.
  • When you hear thunder, immediately move to safe shelter: a substantial building with electricity or plumbing or an enclosed, metal-topped vehicle with windows up.
  • Stay in safe shelter at least 30 minutes after you hear the last sound of thunder.

Indoor Lightning Safety

  • Stay off corded phones, computers and other electrical equipment that put you in direct contact with electricity.
  • Avoid plumbing, including sinks, baths and faucets.
  • Stay away from windows and doors, and stay off porches.
  • Do not lie on concrete floors, and do not lean against concrete walls.

Last Resort Outdoor Risk Reduction Tips

If you are caught outside with no safe shelter anywhere nearby the following actions mayreduce your risk:

  • Immediately get off elevated areas such as hills, mountain ridges or peaks
  • Never lie flat on the ground
  • Never shelter under an isolated tree
  • Never use a cliff or rocky overhang for shelter
  • Immediately get out and away from ponds, lakes and other bodies of water
  • Stay away from objects that conduct electricity (barbed wire fences, power lines, windmills, etc.)

 

0 FDAY 1

The National Weather Service also debunks some of your favorite lightning myths!  Click HERE to check it out!

Again…. there is SO much more about lightning including statistics, more safety tips, manuals for golf courses and pools, along with a slew of other great resources.  Please, it is for your benefit, so take advantage!!  

 


Climate Prediction Center’s Summer Forecast

June 20th, 2014 at 12:32 pm by under Uncategorized

Summers are always hot in South Central Texas, however, over the past decade, it has been incredibly hot in and around the Austin area.  

The drought has been a  large contributor to the over abundance of heat.  No rain, means dry soil.  As the sun bakes, dry soil means warmer temperatures.  Warmer high temperatures then translates into even more dangerous conditions for the elderly community, especially those who can not afford air conditioning (a good transition into our Summer Fan Drive!).   Today is Fan Fare Friday (read all about it in Jim Spencer’s post below), and if you cant make it out to Threadgill’s to make a donation and take in the fun today, don’t worry!  Donations to help our neighbors stay cool this Summer will be accepted ALL SUMMER!!  

 

So here it is… 

 

CURRENT ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC OBSERVATIONS SUGGEST A TRANSITION FROM 
ENSO-NEUTRAL TO EL NINO CONDITIONS IS UNDERWAY. EL NINO CONDITIONS ARE STILL 
EXPECTED TO BE IN PLACE BY LATE SUMMER OR EARLY FALL, HOWEVER, AND THERE 
CONTINUES TO BE CONSIDERABLE DISAGREEMENT AMONG PREDICTIONS OF THE STRENGTH AND 
DURATION OF THE EVENT. AT THIS POINT, AN EL NINO OF MODERATE STRENGTH IS MOST 
LIKELY. 
 
THE TEMPERATURE OUTLOOK FOR JULY-AUGUST-SEPTEMBER (JAS) 2014 INDICATES ELEVATED 
ODDS OF ABOVE-NORMAL TEMPERATURES IN MOST AREAS ALONG THE WEST COAST. 
ABOVE-NORMAL TEMPERATURES ARE ALSO FAVORED FOR THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS, THE 
SOUTHEAST U.S., AND PARTS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC STATES.  BELOW-NORMAL 
TEMPERATURES ARE FAVORED FROM THE NORTHERN ROCKIES TO THE WESTERN GREAT LAKES 
AND UPPER MIDWEST.  THE CHANCES FOR ABOVE-NORMAL TEMPERATURES ARE ENHANCED FOR 
ALASKA. 
 
THE JAS 2014 PRECIPITATION OUTLOOK CALLS FOR ENHANCED PROBABILITIES OF 
BELOW-MEDIAN PRECIPITATION ALONG THE WESTERN COAST OF THE GULF OF MEXICO. 
THERE IS A FAIRLY LARGE REGION OF ELEVATED CHANCES FOR ABOVE-MEDIAN 
PRECIPITATION AMOUNTS FOR MUCH OF THE INTERIOR WEST, FROM PARTS OF THE SOUTHERN 
ROCKIES NORTHWARD TO IDAHO AND SOUTHERN MONTANA. 
 
IN AREAS WHERE THE LIKELIHOODS OF SEASONAL MEAN TEMPERATURES AND SEASONAL 
ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION AMOUNTS ARE SIMILAR TO CLIMATOLOGICAL PROBABILITIES, 
EQUAL CHANCES (EC) IS SHOWN. 


The Climate Prediction Center's Precipitation Forecast compared to average during the months of July, August, and September.

The Climate Prediction Center’s Precipitation Forecast compared to average during the months of July, August, and September.

Climate Prediction Center's Temperature Outlook for the months July through September.

Climate Prediction Center’s Temperature Outlook for the months July through September.

In conclusion:  Another hot and dry summer may be on the way…..