Weather

Forecasters to test experimental lightning data

July 21st, 2014 at 1:39 pm by under Weather

Screen Shot 2014-05-15 at 10.48.39 AM

(NSSL)  NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters will test how lightning data impacts the warning process during convective events in the NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed from July 21-August 29. The project is a collaboration between NSSL and Earth Networks, Inc., a private weather company.

Earth Networks has indicated the potential for its continental scale total lightning network (ENTLN) data and associated “Dangerous Thunderstorm Alerts” (DTAs) to increase forecaster situational awareness and lead times. Prior limited studies have shown the use of total lightning detections and associated derivative products could have positive impacts on the warning process.

During the tests, Earth Networks lightning data and its DTA products will be implemented into NWS operational software (AWIPS2) in the NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed. Forecasters will complete a series of weather-warning scenarios in displaced real time, ranging from marginally severe to high-impact tornadic events for a variety of geographic locations.

These tests will evaluate the feasibility of using this data in warning operations, as well as the impact on warnings issued by NWS forecasters. The final outcome of this project is to make recommendations on possible product improvements, and determine whether Earth Networks products should become part of the operational product suites available to NWS offices nationally.


Beating The Heat: Safety Tips

July 21st, 2014 at 7:29 am by under Weather

1 SPC

If you plan on being out and about in summer, chances are you’ll be exposed to a lot of sun and higher temperatures.

Each year, heat kills at least 650 people on average in the United States — more than tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, lightning, or any other weather event combined.

“Heat can be a silent killer because it doesn’t topple trees or rip roofs off houses like tornadoes and hurricanes,” says Eli Jacks, chief of fire and public weather services with NOAA’s National Weather Service. “Nevertheless, it’s a dangerous weather condition for which people should prepare.”

How much heat can a person safely endure? It depends.

Certain groups of people should be especially careful during hot weather conditions. For example, city-dwellers and those living in the upper floors of tall buildings or in heat-prone regions are most at-risk for heat-related illness. People who have difficulty getting around or who have health conditions are particularly susceptible. The elderly and the very young also merit special attention during periods of high heat and humidity.

The National Weather Service and the  Occupational Safety and Health Administration have partnered again this year to increase awareness for outdoor workers and their employers during excessive heat events.  As part of this effort, the National Weather Service will incorporate specific outdoor worker safety precautions when heat advisories and warnings are issued.

 

083007_hot_thermometer

By taking some precautions, you can stay healthy while enjoying the great outdoors this summer:

1. Be informed and stay alert

Pay close attention to heat advisories or warnings that have been issued for your community.

  • NOAA’s National Weather Service continually updates heat-related advisories and warnings online at weather.gov. (Click on “Excessive Heat Warning” and “Heat Advisory” under the U.S. map — if there are no current warnings or advisories in the United States, nothing will appear).
  • NOAA issues excessive heat warnings when weather conditions pose an imminent threat to life andheat advisories when weather conditions are expected to cause significant discomfort or inconvenience or — if caution is not taken — become life threatening.
  • If you do not have Internet access, you can get heat advisory and warning information by watching your local television or radio newscast or by purchasing a NOAA weather radio and tuning into NOAA Weather Radio All-Hazards.
  • Use the temperature and humidity to figure out the heat index for your area, a measure that tells us how hot it feels.

2. Plan for periods of extreme heat

  • Visit your physician for a check-up to find out if you have a health condition that may be exacerbated by hot weather.
  • Service your air conditioner before hot weather arrives, and obtain window fans to help cool your home.
  • Know where to go when weather heats up. Find cool indoor places to spend time on hot summer days, such as a local library, shopping mall, museum or aquarium.

3. Know what to do and what not to do during hot weather

  • DO - Slow down, and reduce strenuous activity. Mow the lawn or garden in the early morning or late evening instead of midday.
  • DO - Dress in lightweight, nonrestrictive, light-colored clothing.
  • DO - Drink plenty of water or other nonalcoholic fluids.
  • DO - Eat light, easy-to-digest foods.
  • DO - Seek out shade if you have to be outdoors for extended periods. Spend more time in air-conditioned places.
  • DO - Check on elderly neighbors, friends and relatives to make sure they are okay.
  • DO - When outside, take frequent dips in the ocean or pool, or mist yourself with a water bottle. When inside, take frequent cool baths or showers and use cold compresses to cool off.
  • DO - Apply high-SPF sunscreen frequently when outdoors.
  • DO - Seek immediate medical attention if you experience symptoms of heat illness. (See chart below for symptoms, likely conditions and treatment.)

keep calm

However, please remember:

  • DO NOT leave children, the elderly, or pets in the car for any reason, for any length of time. A dark dashboard or seat can easily reach temperatures in the range of 180 to more than 200 degrees F!
  • DO NOT stay in the sun for long periods.
  • DO NOT take salt tablets unless directed by a physician.
  • AVOID alcoholic beverages; they can dehydrate you and increase your risk of heat stroke and other potentially fatal heat-related illnesses.

4. Know the warning signs of heat-related illness

Excessive heat exposure can raise your body temperature to unhealthy levels and may make you ill — it can also be deadly. Take the precautions listed above and be on the lookout for these warning signs that you may be in trouble:

Symptom Likely Condition Treatment
Painful muscle cramps and spasms, usually in muscles of legs and abdomen. Heavy sweating. Heat cramps Apply firm pressure on cramping muscles or gently massage to relieve spasm.

Give sips of water; if nausea occurs, discontinue water intake.

Consult with a clinician or physician if individual has fluid restrictions (e.g., dialysis patients).

Heavy sweating, weakness,
cool skin, pale and clammy. Weak pulse. Normal temperature possible. Possible muscle cramps, dizziness, fainting, nausea and vomiting.
Heat exhaustion Move individual out of sun, lay him or her down, and loosen clothing.

Apply cool, wet cloths.

Fan or move individual to air conditioned room.

Give sips of water; if nausea occurs, discontinue water intake.

If vomiting continues, seek immediate medical attention. Consult with a clinician or physician if individual has fluid restrictions (e.g., dialysis patients).

Altered mental state. Possible throbbing headache, confusion, nausea and dizziness. High body temperature (106°F or higher). Rapid and strong pulse. Possible unconsciousness. Skin may be hot and dry, or patient may be sweating. Sweating likely especially if patient was previously involved in vigorous activity. Heat stroke Heat stroke is a severe medical emergency.

Summon emergency medical assistance or get the individual to a hospital immediately.

Delay can be fatal.

Move individual to a cooler, preferably air-conditioned, environment.

Reduce body temperature with a water mister and fan or sponging.

Use air conditioners. Use fans if heat index temperatures are below the high 90s. Use extreme caution.

Remove clothing. If temperature rises again, repeat process. Do not give fluids.

 

 

 


How does wet soil keep us cooler during the day?

July 20th, 2014 at 9:23 am by under Weather

A summertime ridge of high pressure is building over Texas today through the coming week.

This type of weather pattern can often send temperatures soaring over 100 degrees. But we’re forecasting highs of only 91 Sunday, and temperatures remaining below 100 through the entire work week.

What gives?

The answer has to do with soil moisture.

7-20 ID soil 1

Parts of Austin and surrounding communities received 5-8″ of rain last Thursday night into Friday morning.

Those heavy, flooding rains left the soil around the area very wet.

7-20 ID soil 2

 

Wet soil gives off moisture into the lower parts of the atmosphere, which keeps daytime temperatures cooler.

It depends on the temperature, wind speed, humidity, season, and amount of sunshine – but wet soil such as this often takes as long as 4-5 days to fully dry to the point where it is not affecting high temperatures.

So when you’re outside today and you get hot – just remember, it could be hotter.

Have a great weekend!


National Weather Service Rainfall Total Summary From 7/17-7/18

July 18th, 2014 at 12:50 pm by under Weather

890

SXUS54 KEWX 181618

LCOEWX

 

COCORAHS PRECIPITATION SUMMARY

NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE AUSTIN/SAN ANTONIO TX

1115 AM CDT FRI JUL 18 2014

 

COCORAHS PRECIPITATION REPORTS

THESE REPORTS ARE CONSIDERED SUPPLEMENTAL AND UNOFFICIAL

VALUES ARE FOR THE PREVIOUS 24 HOURS ENDING AROUND 7 AM LOCAL TIME

 

.B EWX 0718 C DH07/PP/SF/SD/SW

:

:COCORAHS PRECIPITATION REPORTS FOR THE LOCAL AREA

:

:                                               SNOW   SNOW  WATER

:                                        PCPN   FALL  DEPTH  EQUIV

:

TX-TV-201 : AUSTIN 4.2 ESE           *   : 8.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-118 : AUSTIN 4.5 ENE           *   : 5.71 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-47  : AUSTIN 4.7 E(JORDANPK)   *   : 5.53 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-159 : AUSTIN 1.0 NNE           *   : 5.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-88  : CEDAR PARK 1.5 WNW       *   : 5.21 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-106 : ROUND ROCK 4.7 ESE       *   : 5.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-11 : TIMBERWOOD PARK 7.7 ENE  *   : 5.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-167 : AUSTIN 3.0 E             *   : 5.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-166 : CEDAR PARK 2.4 WNW       *   : 4.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-16  : CEDAR PARK 2.7 SSW       *   : 4.75 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-178 : ROUND ROCK 3.6 E         *   : 4.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-10  : BOERNE 6.0 WSW           *   : 4.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-111: BULVERDE 5.5 ENE         *   : 4.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-95 : BULVERDE 4.2 ENE         *   : 4.48 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-14  : AUSTIN 2.9 NE(LAMAR&ARPT)*   : 4.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-10  : AUSTIN 1.7 NNW(45TH&LP1) *   : 4.35 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-176 : AUSTIN 2.4 N             *   : 4.24 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-02  : AUSTIN 2.8 N(ALLANDALE)  *   : 4.21 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-96  : GEORGETOWN 4.6 NNW       *   : 4.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-41  : CEDAR PARK 1.0 ESE       *   : 4.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FR-02  : PEARSALL 7.9 NNW         *   : 4.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-115 : GEORGETOWN 7.4 WSW       *   : 4.07 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-12  : BOERNE 4.0 WSW           *   : 4.05 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-14 : HELOTES 1.0 ENE          *   : 4.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-183 : CEDAR PARK 3.1 SSW       *   : 4.02 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-78  : GEORGETOWN 8.0 W         *   : 4.01 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-146 : LEANDER 2.2 ESE          *   : 4.01 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-87  : AUSTIN 3.9 NNE           *   : 4.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FR-10  : PEARSALL 21.1 WNW        *   : 3.96 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-156 : GEORGETOWN 4.9 NW        *   : 3.92 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-28 : LEON VALLEY 1.6 N        *   : 3.88 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-142 : LEANDER 3.4 NNE          *   : 3.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-170 : HUTTO 1.4 SW             *   : 3.83 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-24 : BULVERDE 4.3 ESE         *   : 3.81 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-129: TIMBERWOOD PARK 3.0 SW   *   : 3.80 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-57  : AUSTIN 3.3 N(LP1&FARWST) *   : 3.80 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-175 : GEORGETOWN 6.7 NW        *   : 3.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-05  : KENDALIA 5.2 SSW         *   : 3.76 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-192: HELOTES 2.4 NNW          *   : 3.74 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-174: HELOTES 1.3 NE           *   : 3.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-49  : WELLS BRANCH 4.2 S       *   : 3.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-148 : ROUND ROCK 3.0 NE        *   : 3.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-171 : GEORGETOWN 7.3 W         *   : 3.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-14  : BRUSHY CREEK 2.3 SW      *   : 3.62 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-55  : ANDERSON MILL 1.1 ENE    *   : 3.61 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-136 : PFLUGERVILLE 4.5 NE      *   : 3.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-118 : BRUSHY CREEK 2.3 SW      *   : 3.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-15  : KENDALIA 5.4 S           *   : 3.52 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-36 : HONDO 11.0 E             *   : 3.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-152 : AUSTIN 0.8 WSW           *   : 3.48 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-98  : CEDAR PARK 3.0 S         *   : 3.46 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-253: CASTLE HILLS 1.9 NE      *   : 3.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-39  : ROUND ROCK 1.0 S         *   : 3.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-135 : GEORGETOWN 8.9 E         *   : 3.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-163: LEON VALLEY 1.9 WNW      *   : 3.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-163 : PFLUGERVILLE 2.5 NNE     *   : 3.35 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-162 : LIBERTY HILL 1.2 N       *   : 3.35 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-95 : HELOTES 3.7 SSE          *   : 3.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-08  : TAYLOR 0.9 NNW           *   : 3.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-74  : GEORGETOWN 3.0 ESE       *   : 3.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-143: ALAMO HEIGHTS 0.7 NNW    *   : 3.19 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-43  : PFLUGERVILLE 2.6 N       *   : 3.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-176: SAN ANTONIO 5.4 SW       *   : 3.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-49  : FREDERICKSBURG 8.0 WNW   *   : 3.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-27  : BOERNE 8.8 NE            *   : 3.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-60  : BOERNE 8.4 ENE           *   : 3.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-61  : ANDERSON MILL 1.4 NW     *   : 3.09 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-44  : JOLLYVILLE 1.2 WNW       *   : 3.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-94  : BOERNE 7.8 NE            *   : 3.05 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-208 : PFLUGERVILLE 3.3 E       *   : 3.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-56 : DRIFTWOOD 2.8 NNW        *   : 3.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-22  : LIBERTY HILL 0.6 NNW     *   : 3.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-102 : ROUND ROCK 3.4 E         *   : 3.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-110 : LIBERTY HILL 4.3 ENE     *   : 3.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-44 : PIPE CREEK 3.5 NNW       *   : 2.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-146: FAIR OAKS RANCH 0.4 WSW  *   : 2.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-176 : GEORGETOWN 6.1 NNW       *   : 2.94 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-61 : BASTROP 7.6 N            *   : 2.93 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-49 : MCDADE 4.6 SSW           *   : 2.92 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-03 : HONDO 8.7 E              *   : 2.89 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-35  : PFLUGERVILLE 0.6 ENE     *   : 2.89 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-24  : BOERNE 2.0 WNW           *   : 2.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-27 : SCENIC OAKS 0.8 SW       *   : 2.84 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-44 : ELGIN 0.9 NW             *   : 2.83 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-145 : AUSTIN 12.7 NNW          *   : 2.83 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-30  : ANDERSON MILL 2.2 S      *   : 2.81 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-76  : PFLUGERVILLE 1.0 SSW     *   : 2.81 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-169 : ROUND ROCK 2.2 W         *   : 2.80 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-11  : GEORGETOWN 0.5 N         *   : 2.79 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-18 : HONDO 8.8 E              *   : 2.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-126 : AUSTIN 10.7 N            *   : 2.72 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-22  : BOERNE 4.7 WNW           *   : 2.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-75  : JOLLYVILLE 2.1 SSW       *   : 2.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-76  : THRALL 10.8 SSE          *   : 2.69 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-123 : AUSTIN 10.5 N            *   : 2.68 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-100: DRIFTWOOD 2.4 NNW        *   : 2.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-68  : JOLLYVILLE 1.6 SSE       *   : 2.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-150 : AUSTIN 4.5 NNE           *   : 2.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-35  : BERTRAM 6.4 ESE          *   : 2.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-212 : AUSTIN 8.5 NNW           *   : 2.61 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-75 : CIRCLE D-KC ESTATES 0.9 S*   : 2.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-95  : BOERNE 2.2 WNW           *   : 2.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-197 : LEANDER 4.4 WSW          *   : 2.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KY-03  : BRACKETTVILLE 0.1 NE     *   : 2.59 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-86  : AUSTIN 4.7 NNE           *   : 2.57 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-43 : BANDERA 7.4 ENE          *   : 2.56 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-38 : HELOTES 4.5 WSW          *   : 2.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-161 : TAYLOR 2.4 S             *   : 2.54 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-31 : CHINA GROVE 4.6 WSW      *   : 2.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-17  : TAYLOR 8.5 SE            *   : 2.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-212: HOLLYWOOD PARK 2.0 NW    *   : 2.52 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-73  : FAIR OAKS RANCH 1.8 NW   *   : 2.52 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-01  : AUSTIN 10.0 NNW(GRTHILLS)*   : 2.50 / 0.0 /  0.0 / 0.00

TX-WM-04  : GEORGETOWN 1.3 WNW       *   : 2.50 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LE-12  : LEXINGTON 2.7 SSE        *   : 2.49 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-219 : AUSTIN 7.9 N             *   : 2.47 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-70  : ROUND ROCK 1.8 SW        *   : 2.46 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-188: SAN ANTONIO 5.1 W        *   : 2.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-52  : BOERNE 2.1 WNW           *   : 2.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-273: BLOSSOM PARK 0.1 ESE     *   : 2.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-01  : GEORGETOWN 1.2 W         *   : 2.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-119 : BARTLETT 5.0 W           *   : 2.43 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-179 : GEORGETOWN 1.5 WNW       *   : 2.39 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-270: BOERNE 7.2 SE            *   : 2.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-08  : FAIR OAKS RANCH 2.2 NNW  *   : 2.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-68  : GEORGETOWN 4.5 SSE       *   : 2.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-71  : GEORGETOWN 5.8 SE        *   : 2.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-14  : FAIR OAKS RANCH 2.2 NNW  *   : 2.33 / 0.0 /  0.0 / 0.00

TX-BXR-121: SAN ANTONIO 3.0 S        *   : 2.33 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-07  : FAIR OAKS RANCH 10.0 NNE *   : 2.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-211 : AUSTIN 8.0 N(BULLRUN)    *   : 2.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-31  : FREDERICKSBURG 9.1 WSW   *   : 2.31 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-46  : FREDERICKSBURG 9.1 WSW   *   : 2.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-60 : DRIFTWOOD 5.0 S          *   : 2.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LE-05  : LEXINGTON 6.7 S          *   : 2.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-152 : CEDAR PARK 4.6 E         *   : 2.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-75 : SHAVANO PARK 1.1 W       *   : 2.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-65 : HOLLYWOOD PARK 5.2 NE    *   : 2.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-55 : MOUNTAIN CITY 6.7 WNW    *   : 2.24 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-56  : BOERNE 10.5 ENE          *   : 2.22 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-83  : MANOR 5.1 SSE            *   : 2.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-41 : D’HANIS 2.4 NNE          *   : 2.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-09  : WEST LAKE HILLS 2.4 NNW  *   : 2.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-65  : BOERNE 1.2 E             *   : 2.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-25 : RIO MEDINA 5.5 NNW       *   : 2.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-218: CASTLE HILLS 0.7 NW      *   : 2.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-214 : AUSTIN 9.6 WNW           *   : 2.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-48 : CANYON LAKE 8.1 NW       *   : 2.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-59  : BOERNE 13.7 NE           *   : 2.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LE-13  : LEXINGTON 8.8 SW         *   : 2.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-27 : MICO 5.0 E               *   : 2.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-104 : GEORGETOWN 1.6 W         *   : 2.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-117 : AUSTIN 5.9 NW            *   : 2.05 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-211: SHAVANO PARK 3.4 SW      *   : 2.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-83 : PAIGE 4.6 SW             *   : 2.02 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LE-15  : LEXINGTON 2.3 SSW        *   : 2.02 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-61  : JONESTOWN 0.8 NE         *   : 2.01 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-27  : LEANDER 1.9 WSW          *   : 2.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-02 : ELGIN 4.4 SSE            *   : 1.93 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-264: ATASCOSA 2.3 NE          *   : 1.92 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-23 : DEVINE 0.4 S             *   : 1.92 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-215: HOLLYWOOD PARK 4.5 NE    *   : 1.91 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-21 : HOLLYWOOD PARK 1.8 N     *   : 1.90 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-198 : AUSTIN 4.0 SSE           *   : 1.90 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-48  : THRALL 10.5 SSE          *   : 1.86 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-21  : JOURDANTON 5.2 NNW       *   : 1.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-75 : BERTRAM 3.7 SE           *   : 1.84 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-10 : MICO 6.4 WSW             *   : 1.84 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-01 : ELGIN 3.5 NNE            *   : 1.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KY-04  : BRACKETTVILLE 0.8 S      *   : 1.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-28  : FLORESVILLE 8.9 WNW      *   : 1.74 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-03  : HARPER 10.1 SSE          *   : 1.71 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-138: LEON VALLEY 2.8 W        *   : 1.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-130: BOERNE 10.4 E            *   : 1.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-46 : BASTROP 4.9 NE           *   : 1.68 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-30 : KYLE 1.1 SSE             *   : 1.68 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-135: TERRELL HILLS 1.0 NE     *   : 1.67 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-78 : BASTROP 4.7 NE           *   : 1.66 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-16 : CASTROVILLE 4.0 SW       *   : 1.64 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-42 : BASTROP 5.7 NE           *   : 1.62 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-25  : PLEASANTON 9.1 NE        *   : 1.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-184: SAN ANTONIO 8.0 NNW      *   : 1.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-53  : BOERNE 10.6 NE           *   : 1.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-10  : ELMENDORF 5.6 ENE        *   : 1.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-30  : INGRAM 10.2 NW           *   : 1.59 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-124 : LIBERTY HILL 4.7 W       *   : 1.59 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-26  : GEORGETOWN 4.7 NNE       *   : 1.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-86 : BASTROP 5.1 NE           *   : 1.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-48 : HOLLYWOOD PARK 1.7 ESE   *   : 1.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-39  : FLORESVILLE 9.4 NW       *   : 1.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-28  : LYTLE 2.0 SSE            *   : 1.50 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KY-18  : BRACKETTVILLE 2.0 SSW    *   : 1.50 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-29 : BANDERA 4.7 NE           *   : 1.49 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-33 : HONDO 3.4 S              *   : 1.48 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-45  : LA VERNIA 3.6 SSW        *   : 1.47 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-90 : WIMBERLEY 5.3 N          *   : 1.46 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-05  : JOURDANTON 6.0 SSW       *   : 1.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-01  : INGRAM 14.2 NW           *   : 1.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-44 : NATALIA 5.4 SSE          *   : 1.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-171 : AUSTIN 3.7 SSW           *   : 1.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-18  : PLEASANTON 0.4 E         *   : 1.43 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-51 : SPRING BRANCH 2.4 SW     *   : 1.42 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-217 : TANGLEWOOD FOREST 2.7 E  *   : 1.42 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-34  : POTH 0.6 SSE             *   : 1.42 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-205: CONVERSE 1.6 NW          *   : 1.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-88 : MCDADE 1.4 NNE           *   : 1.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-26  : POTEET 4.9 W             *   : 1.34 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-86 : KYLE 2.0 SE              *   : 1.34 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-116: KYLE 2.5 NW              *   : 1.34 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-24  : ROCKSPRINGS 18.4 WNW     *   : 1.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-92 : KYLE 2.5 NW              *   : 1.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-58 : CEDAR CREEK 5.9 N        *   : 1.31 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-19 : SAN MARCOS 2.9 WNW       *   : 1.31 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-32 : HOLLYWOOD PARK 4.4 E     *   : 1.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-180: LEON SPRINGS 2.6 N       *   : 1.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-25 : GARDEN RIDGE 1.8 WNW     *   : 1.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-71  : BOERNE 6.5 N             *   : 1.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-111 : AUSTIN 10.8 WSW          *   : 1.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-122 : AUSTIN 5.6 WSW           *   : 1.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-155 : AUSTIN 4.6 SSW           *   : 1.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-05  : FLORESVILLE 8.1 NNW      *   : 1.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-60 : BRIGGS 3.9 NNE           *   : 1.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-66 : ELGIN 11.5 SW            *   : 1.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-241: LIVE OAK 4.6 WNW         *   : 1.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-160 : ROLLINGWOOD 2.8 SW       *   : 1.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-29  : FLORESVILLE 0.7 S        *   : 1.24 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-50  : SISTERDALE 1.7 SE        *   : 1.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-27  : FLORESVILLE 0.7 SW       *   : 1.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-28 : NATALIA 0.4 NE           *   : 1.22 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-01  : POTEET 4.1 ENE           *   : 1.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-279: LIVE OAK 0.8 SSW         *   : 1.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-AT-38  : JOURDANTON 0.6 NW        *   : 1.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FY-02  : ROUND TOP 0.2 W          *   : 1.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-59  : TANGLEWOOD FOREST 0.6 NE *   : 1.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-165 : AUSTIN 5.7 SSW           *   : 1.16 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-38 : PIPE CREEK 3.4 SW        *   : 1.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-87 : BASTROP 6.2 W            *   : 1.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-221: SELMA 3.9 WNW            *   : 1.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-14  : NEW BERLIN 6.7 SE        *   : 1.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-08 : PIPE CREEK 3.0 NW        *   : 1.07 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-41  : SCHERTZ 2.0 NNW          *   : 1.07 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-45  : HARPER 6.5 SW            *   : 1.07 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-125 : MANOR 5.5 SSE            *   : 1.06 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-48  : HARPER 3.2 W             *   : 1.05 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-58  : ANDICE 1.6 SW            *   : 1.05 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-77  : BOERNE 5.3 N             *   : 1.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-69 : CEDAR CREEK 1.0 ENE      *   : 1.01 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-24 : PIPE CREEK 4.9 SSW       *   : 1.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-48 : BURNET 3.7 N             *   : 1.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-21 : SAN MARCOS 7.1 W         *   : 1.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-164 : AUSTIN 4.1 SW            *   : 1.00 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-117: KYLE 7.8 ENE             *   : 0.98 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KY-07  : BRACKETTVILLE 2.0 W      *   : 0.98 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-113 : AUSTIN 7.3 SW            *   : 0.98 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-20  : HARPER 3.3 WSW           *   : 0.97 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-33 : OATMEAL 1.7 WNW          *   : 0.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-73 : BERTRAM 5.3 N            *   : 0.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-20 : CANYON LAKE 9.2 W        *   : 0.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-45  : BOERNE 3.4 N             *   : 0.95 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-136: LACKLAND AFB 7.8 WNW     *   : 0.94 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-MDN-21 : D’HANIS 3.5 WSW          *   : 0.93 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-07 : SPRING BRANCH 4.0 SSE    *   : 0.92 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FY-30  : LA GRANGE 7.8 NNE        *   : 0.88 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FY-33  : FAYETTEVILLE 1.0 SW      *   : 0.88 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-61 : NEW BRAUNFELS 10.0 W     *   : 0.87 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WO-30  : ADKINS 6.4 SSE           *   : 0.87 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-03  : INGRAM 4.4 NW            *   : 0.86 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-02 : SPRING BRANCH 5.1 SSE    *   : 0.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-30  : KINGSLAND 1.9 WSW        *   : 0.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-112 : AUSTIN 5.7 SSE           *   : 0.85 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-07 : BASTROP 1.2 N            *   : 0.84 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-23  : SEGUIN 1.9 E             *   : 0.84 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-30 : BANDERA 6.4 N            *   : 0.82 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-79 : BASTROP 1.5 NW           *   : 0.82 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-73  : SCHERTZ 4.6 NNE          *   : 0.82 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-74 : BASTROP 1.2 N            *   : 0.80 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-218 : ONION CREEK 3.2 ENE      *   : 0.80 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-128: NEW BRAUNFELS 10.0 W     *   : 0.79 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-07  : HARPER 1.4 S             *   : 0.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-34  : SUNSET VALLEY 0.7 SE     *   : 0.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-60  : TANGLEWOOD FOREST 3.5 NW *   : 0.78 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-30 : LULING 4.4 NNW           *   : 0.77 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-37 : CANYON LAKE 2.8 N        *   : 0.77 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KS-03  : KARNES CITY 12.6 WSW     *   : 0.77 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-17  : MCQUEENEY 3.4 SW         *   : 0.75 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GZ-25  : GONZALES 0.6 S           *   : 0.75 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-37  : KINGSLAND 1.4 ESE        *   : 0.75 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-36 : BASTROP 1.0 WNW          *   : 0.74 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-47  : FREDERICKSBURG 4.6 WNW   *   : 0.74 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-17  : SUNRISE BEACH VILLAGE 0.5*   : 0.73 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-18  : FREDERICKSBURG 12.2 W    *   : 0.72 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-98 : SAN MARCOS 1.8 NW        *   : 0.72 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-46 : CIBOLO 3.9 N             *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-86 : NEW BRAUNFELS 5.2 W      *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-104: SPRING BRANCH 5.7 SE     *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-53  : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.8 S      *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-46  : LAGO VISTA 1.4 SSW       *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-54  : SUNSET VALLEY 2.0 SW     *   : 0.70 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-49 : CANYON LAKE 5.3 SW       *   : 0.69 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-35  : MOUNTAIN HOME 13.1 SW    *   : 0.69 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-80 : NEW BRAUNFELS 6.3 NNE    *   : 0.68 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-07 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 4.3 E   *   : 0.67 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-22 : BANDERA 8.6 NNW          *   : 0.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-43 : DALE 7.6 N               *   : 0.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-68 : BASTROP 2.1 SSW          *   : 0.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-20  : SUNRISE BEACH VILLAGE 1.1*   : 0.65 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-04  : BOERNE 5.1 NNW           *   : 0.64 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-35 : NEW BRAUNFELS 5.5 WNW    *   : 0.63 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-09 : NEW BRAUNFELS 7.0 NNE    *   : 0.61 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-22 : BURNET 1.9 SE            *   : 0.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-24  : HORSESHOE BAY 3.1 W      *   : 0.60 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-10 : JOHNSON CITY 2.2 N       *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-23 : BLANCO 7.2 SE            *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-04 : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.4 SSW    *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-79 : NEW BRAUNFELS 5.0 W      *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-88  : SAN MARCOS 6.6 SSW       *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-72  : COMFORT 4.5 SE           *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-23  : KINGSLAND 0.5 S          *   : 0.58 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-17 : WYLDWOOD 8.3 SSW         *   : 0.57 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-200 : LAKEWAY 3.5 ENE          *   : 0.57 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-12 : CANYON LAKE 2.5 W        *   : 0.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-12  : ROCKSPRINGS 8.5 WSW      *   : 0.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-56  : SEGUIN 5.0 SSE           *   : 0.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GZ-05  : GONZALES 3.8 SW          *   : 0.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-50  : INGRAM 3.1 NW            *   : 0.55 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-51 : BERTRAM 8.8 SSW          *   : 0.54 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-02  : ROCKSPRINGS 5.4 NW       *   : 0.54 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-28 : MANCHACA 2.1 ENE         *   : 0.54 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-107: DRIPPING SPRINGS 7.2 E   *   : 0.54 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-13 : HIGHLAND HAVEN 1.3 SW    *   : 0.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-39  : HARPER 4.9 N             *   : 0.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-59 : AUSTIN 14.7 WSW          *   : 0.53 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-38  : HARPER 5.4 N             *   : 0.52 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-82  : NEW BRAUNFELS 3.1 S      *   : 0.52 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-41 : BANDERA 4.0 NNW          *   : 0.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-65 : GRANITE SHOALS 0.9 S     *   : 0.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-03 : NEW BRAUNFELS 3.1 WNW    *   : 0.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-19  : ROCKSPRINGS 17.9 WSW     *   : 0.51 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-56 : BERTRAM 9.1 SSW          *   : 0.50 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-19  : HORSESHOE BAY 2.7 W      *   : 0.50 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BXR-134: MARION 6.3 SW            *   : 0.49 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-34  : MCQUEENEY 0.5 ENE        *   : 0.48 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GZ-10  : GONZALES 4.5 SSE         *   : 0.48 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-52  : OAK HILL 1.1 WSW         *   : 0.48 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-81  : COMFORT 2.6 N            *   : 0.47 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-114 : AUSTIN 8.2 WSW           *   : 0.47 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-29 : NEW BRAUNFELS 5.9 NW     *   : 0.46 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-22 : CANYON LAKE 7.2 ESE      *   : 0.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-86  : SEGUIN 2.3 NE            *   : 0.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-38  : CENTER POINT 2.4 ESE     *   : 0.45 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-05 : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.3 NE     *   : 0.44 / 0.0 /  0.0 / 0.00

TX-GS-28  : WILLOW CITY 4.2 W        *   : 0.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GZ-16  : LEESVILLE 4.2 NE         *   : 0.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-15  : INGRAM 8.6 WSW           *   : 0.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ZV-15  : CRYSTAL CITY 0.5 ESE     *   : 0.44 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-25  : WILLOW CITY 4.3 W        *   : 0.43 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-132: NEW BRAUNFELS 2.2 ESE    *   : 0.42 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-87  : SEGUIN 5.1 NW            *   : 0.42 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-98 : NEW BRAUNFELS 0.6 W      *   : 0.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-DM-02  : CARRIZO SPRINGS 3.0 NNE  *   : 0.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-62  : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.4 S      *   : 0.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-135 : CREEDMOOR 1.5 NNW        *   : 0.41 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-40 : NEW BRAUNFELS 0.1 ENE    *   : 0.40 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-103: NEW BRAUNFELS 0.5 N      *   : 0.40 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-175 : SAN LEANNA 0.1 SSE       *   : 0.40 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-41 : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.8 NNE    *   : 0.39 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-01 : BURNET 5.4 NNW           *   : 0.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-12 : HARWOOD 4.7 NNE          *   : 0.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-60 : NEW BRAUNFELS 10.4 NW    *   : 0.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-09  : FREDERICKSBURG 1.8 NE    *   : 0.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-74 : SAN MARCOS 1.8 SSW       *   : 0.38 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-53 : GRANITE SHOALS 1.6 E     *   : 0.37 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-31  : NEW BRAUNFELS 2.5 SSE    *   : 0.37 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-203 : LOST CREEK 5.1 SW        *   : 0.37 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CML-115: NEW BRAUNFELS 1.5 NNW    *   : 0.36 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-81 : SMITHVILLE 0.9 E         *   : 0.35 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-141 : LAGO VISTA 1.5 SW        *   : 0.35 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GP-64  : SEGUIN 7.6 N             *   : 0.34 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KS-10  : RUNGE 0.1 SSW            *   : 0.33 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-36 : SPICEWOOD 2.2 NW         *   : 0.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-DW-07  : YOAKUM 6.2 WNW           *   : 0.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-03 : WIMBERLEY 4.4 E          *   : 0.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-04  : SHINER 1.9 E             *   : 0.32 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-54  : CENTER POINT 0.5 SE      *   : 0.31 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-05 : MARBLE FALLS 0.7 NW      *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-69 : MEADOWLAKES 0.4 NNE      *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-14 : LULING 6.9 NW            *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-113: WOODCREEK 0.5 SSW        *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-64  : INGRAM 0.7 E             *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-WM-113 : JARRELL 4.4 W            *   : 0.30 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-33 : BANDERA 4.0 E            *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-31 : MARBLE FALLS 5.8 NNW     *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-55 : MARBLE FALLS 1.4 NE      *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-63 : MEADOWLAKES 0.2 W        *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-11 : LULING 7.4 NE            *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KS-01  : RUNGE 0.7 ENE            *   : 0.29 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-23 : BANDERA 3.2 W            *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-80 : BASTROP 1.7 SE           *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-29 : LOCKHART 5.2 S           *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-17 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 8.4 W   *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-65 : SAN MARCOS 6.3 WSW       *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-07  : HORSESHOE BAY 2.7 S      *   : 0.28 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-33 : LOCKHART 5.4 NNE         *   : 0.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-26  : FREDERICKSBURG 11.4 NE   *   : 0.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-32  : FREDERICKSBURG 12.4 NE   *   : 0.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-54 : WIMBERLEY 5.2 WNW        *   : 0.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-99  : BEE CAVE 2.5 ENE         *   : 0.27 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-45 : MARBLE FALLS 1.0 S       *   : 0.26 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-06  : SHINER 5.8 ENE           *   : 0.26 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-26  : SHINER 4.1 NE            *   : 0.26 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-UV-19  : CAMP WOOD 5.02 SSE       *   : 0.26 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-04 : JOHNSON CITY 7.3 W       *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-12 : BLANCO 1.8 ESE           *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-24  : WILLOW CITY 0.1 W        *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-91 : WIMBERLEY 4.6 WNW        *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-27  : MOULTON 6.9 SE           *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-199 : BEE CAVE 1.8 NW          *   : 0.25 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-20 : JOHNSON CITY 7.9 WNW     *   : 0.24 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-39 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 3.3 NE  *   : 0.24 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-62 : SPICEWOOD 2.5 ENE        *   : 0.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-10 : LOCKHART 5.2 SSE         *   : 0.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FY-32  : FLATONIA 0.4 SW          *   : 0.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-37  : FREDERICKSBURG 0.5 SW    *   : 0.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-59  : KERRVILLE 3.5 NW         *   : 0.23 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-58 : BURNET 5.7 WSW           *   : 0.22 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-27 : LOCKHART 4.3 NW          *   : 0.22 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-68  : KERRVILLE 1.9 NE         *   : 0.22 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-06 : SPICEWOOD 4.4 NW         *   : 0.21 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-81 : BURNET 2.8 WNW           *   : 0.21 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-24 : ROSANKY 4.5 N            *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-15 : MAXWELL 1.5 NE           *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-35 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 2.8 NNW *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-49 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 6.2 WSW *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-36  : INGRAM 5.9 WSW           *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-25  : HALLETTSVILLE 4.9 E      *   : 0.20 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-22  : FREDERICKSBURG 1.3 SE    *   : 0.19 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-20  : KERRVILLE 1.1 SSW        *   : 0.19 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-01  : LLANO 9.2 NNW            *   : 0.19 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-23  : HALLETTSVILLE 1.6 SSE    *   : 0.19 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-40 : BURNET 6.1 WNW           *   : 0.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-34  : FREDERICKSBURG 1.0 SE    *   : 0.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-103: DRIPPING SPRINGS 6.0 NNE *   : 0.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-11  : HUNT 5.8 WSW             *   : 0.18 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-14 : BUCHANAN DAM 7.3 N       *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BST-32 : RED ROCK 5.0 ESE         *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-FY-36  : LA GRANGE 4.5 SW         *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-53  : KERRVILLE 2.4 NNW        *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-26  : LLANO 0.5 ESE            *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-RL-05  : CAMP WOOD 7.3 NE         *   : 0.17 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-18 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 6.1 WNW *   : 0.16 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-RL-08  : LEAKEY 1.5 ENE           *   : 0.16 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-TV-133 : LAKEWAY 2.8 W            *   : 0.16 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-21  : ROCKSPRINGS 6.2 NNE      *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-63 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 1.7 NW  *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-HYS-80 : DRIPPING SPRINGS 1.4 N   *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-21  : COMFORT 8.0 NNE          *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-89  : SISTERDALE 5.7 N         *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LL-34  : TOW 1.6 NE               *   : 0.15 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-25  : ROCKSPRINGS 6.2 S        *   : 0.14 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-18  : COMFORT 11.5 ENE         *   : 0.14 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-80  : COMFORT 0.9 WSW          *   : 0.14 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-17  : KERRVILLE 4.7 SSE        *   : 0.14 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-63  : KERRVILLE 4.8 WSW        *   : 0.14 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-57  : INGRAM 3.8 W             *   : 0.13 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-77 : BURNET 8.4 WNW           *   : 0.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KN-76  : FREDERICKSBURG 11.6 SSE  *   : 0.12 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-15  : STONEWALL 2.3 ENE        *   : 0.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-GS-33  : FREDERICKSBURG 8.3 SSW   *   : 0.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-22  : KERRVILLE 2.6 SSW        *   : 0.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KR-65  : COMFORT 4.4 W            *   : 0.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-VV-09  : COMSTOCK 29.7 NW         *   : 0.11 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BLC-11 : BLANCO 8.8 ENE           *   : 0.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-03 : BUCHANAN DAM 7.4 NNE     *   : 0.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BRT-57 : BURNET 10.6 NW           *   : 0.10 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-39 : BANDERA 0.2 N            *   : 0.09 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-31 : LOCKHART 4.3 ENE         *   : 0.09 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-26  : ROCKSPRINGS 8.9 SE       *   : 0.09 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-VV-14  : LANGTRY 10.6 W           *   : 0.09 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-05  : HALLETTSVILLE 13.4 SE    *   : 0.08 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-22  : HALLETTSVILLE 14.8 S     *   : 0.07 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-ED-22  : ROCKSPRINGS 11.8 ENE     *   : 0.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-LV-02  : HALLETTSVILLE 17.1 SE    *   : 0.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-UV-17  : UTOPIA 2.0 W             *   : 0.04 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-BND-02 : VANDERPOOL 1.4 SE        *   : 0.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-32 : LOCKHART 8.4 ESE         *   : 0.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-VV-16  : DEL RIO 7.8 NNW          *   : 0.03 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-DW-05  : CUERO 7.3 SSW            *   : 0.02 /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-CLD-18 : DALE 7.3 SE              *   :    T /  MM /   MM /   MM

TX-KY-15  : BRACKETTVILLE 13.8 W     *   : 0.00 / 0.0 /   MM /   MM


More rainfall expected this week

July 15th, 2014 at 10:43 pm by under Weather

Many areas enjoyed beneficial rainfall Tuesday, and we are expecting more this week. We will likely see a bit of a lull Wednesday, but an upper level disturbance will bring another good chance of showers and thunderstorms by Thursday, into Friday.

Click here to see Tuesday’s rainfall totals.


Locally heavy rain of 1 to 2 inches in a short period of time may occur with storms on Thursday and Friday. This may result in localized minor flooding. As always, do not drive where water covers the road. Turn Around, Don’t Drown.

From triple digits to potentially flooding rain

July 14th, 2014 at 10:17 am by under Weather

After triple-digit heat in many communities Sunday and again Monday, a major pattern change is in store featuring cooler temperatures and the chance of beneficial rainfall.

Courtesy of the National Weather Service

Courtesy of the National Weather Service

An unusual July cold front sweeping down the Plains today is forecast to stall over northern Texas Tuesday and Wednesday, then progress through Central Texas Thursday and Friday.

While the front is to our north, we can expect scattered showers and thunderstorms Tuesday and Wednesday.

Rain chances will increase with the front’s passage, currently forecast to occur overnight Thursday into Friday morning.

Moisture is forecast to “pool” along the frontal boundary, setting up a tropical atmosphere and the potential of heavy rainfall.

We always welcome beneficial rain during a drought, but as happens all too often in Central Texas, the potential does exist for getting too much in too little time.

96          102

The images above show the forecast rainfall (radar) picture overnight Thursday into Friday morning.

Computer models are suggesting the possibility of a complex of heavy thunderstorms forming along the front as it moves through Central Texas.

It is important to note that much uncertainty still exists, as this event is still 3-4 days away. Stay tuned to KXAN and KXAN.com as we continue to draw a clearer picture of this late-week rainfall.


Triple digit heat Sunday a first for 2014

July 13th, 2014 at 9:32 pm by under Weather

Sunday was Austin’s first 100 degree day of 2014. It arrived just three days past the average first 100 degree day, July 10th. The last time Camp Mabry recorded 100 degrees or higher was September 7, 2013.

With another 100 degree day in the works, it’s a good time to review summer heat safety.

Sunday sunset over Lake Travis. (KXAN)

Sunday sunset over Lake Travis. (KXAN)

Here’s some really great information from NOAA.

If you plan on being out and about in summer, chances are you’ll be exposed to a lot of sun and higher temperatures.

Each year, heat kills at least 650 people on average in the United States — more than tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, lightning, or any other weather event combined.

“Heat can be a silent killer because it doesn’t topple trees or rip roofs off houses like tornadoes and hurricanes,” says Eli Jacks, chief of fire and public weather services with NOAA’s National Weather Service. “Nevertheless, it’s a dangerous weather condition for which people should prepare.”

How much heat can a person safely endure? It depends.

Certain groups of people should be especially careful during hot weather conditions. For example, city-dwellers and those living in the upper floors of tall buildings or in heat-prone regions are most at-risk for heat-related illness. People who have difficulty getting around or who have health conditions are particularly susceptible. The elderly and the very young also merit special attention during periods of high heat and humidity.

The National Weather Service and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration have partnered again this year to increase awareness for outdoor workers and their employers during excessive heat events. As part of this effort, the National Weather Service will incorporate specific outdoor worker safety precautions when heat advisories and warnings are issued.

By taking some precautions, you can stay healthy while enjoying the great outdoors this summer:

1. Be informed and stay alert

Pay close attention to heat advisories or warnings that have been issued for your community.

  • NOAA’s National Weather Service continually updates heat-related advisories and warnings online at weather.gov. (Click on “Excessive Heat Warning” and “Heat Advisory” under the U.S. map — if there are no current warnings or advisories in the United States, nothing will appear).
  • NOAA issues excessive heat warnings when weather conditions pose an imminent threat to life and heat advisories when weather conditions are expected to cause significant discomfort or inconvenience or — if caution is not taken — become life threatening.
  • If you do not have Internet access, you can get heat advisory and warning information by watching your local television or radio newscast or by purchasing a NOAA weather radio and tuning into NOAA Weather Radio All-Hazards.
  • Use the temperature and humidity to figure out the heat index for your area, a measure that tells us how hot it feels.

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100-degree day statistics

July 13th, 2014 at 9:38 am by under Weather

Sunday is forecast to bring Austin’s first 100-degree day of 2014 – but it comes a bit later than average.

Here’s some useful ‘heat climatology’, courtesy of our local National Weather Service office.

083007_hot_thermometer

90 and 100 Degree Day Information

The average date of the first and last 90 and 100 degree days

The number of 90 and 100 degree days in a year

And the extremes

…are listed below for Austin, Del Rio and San Antonio.

This is based on daily data for Austin Mabry beginning in 1989, for Austin Bergstrom beginning in 1943, for Del Rio beginning in 1906, and for San Antonio beginning in 1885.

SUMMARY OF 90 DEGREE INFORMATION…

LOCATION, AVERAGE, 90 RECORD, AVG. FIRST, AVG. LAST, EARLIEST/LATEST DEG. DAYS

AUSTIN MABRY - 108.8 164 IN 2011 Apr. 18 Oct. 11 Jan. 30 /Dec. 25
AUSTIN BERGSTROM - 104.8 162 IN 2011 Apr. 19 Oct. 14 Feb. 17 /Dec. 25
DEL RIO - 125.3 171 IN 2011 Mar. 20 Oct. 15 Jan. 19 /Dec. 4
SAN ANTONIO - 111.8 155 IN 2011 Apr. 9 Oct. 12 Feb. 9 /Dec. 25

SUMMARY OF 100 DEGREE INFORMATION…

LOCATION, AVERAGE, 100 RECORD, AVG. FIRST, AVG. LAST, EARLIEST/LATEST DEG. DAYS

AUSTIN MABRY - 12.8 90 IN 2011 Jul. 10 Aug. 20 May 4 /Oct. 2
AUSTIN BERGSTROM - 13.6 74 IN 2011 Jul. 11 Aug. 25 Feb. 21/Sep. 28
DEL RIO - 20.8 85 IN 2011 May 27 Aug. 25 Mar. 16/Oct. 4
SAN ANTONIO – 8.4 59 IN 2009 Jun. 30 Aug. 19 Feb. 21/Sep. 28

RECORD NUMBER OF CONSECUTIVE 100 DEGREE DAYS

AUSTIN MABRY – 27 JULY 17 TO AUGUST 12, 2011
AUSTIN BERGSTROM – 23 JULY 27 TO AUGUST 18, 1951
DEL RIO – 50 JUNE 17 TO AUGUST 5, 1980
SAN ANTONIO – 21 JULY 24 TO AUGUST 13, 1962


First of three “supermoons” this weekend

July 11th, 2014 at 3:19 pm by under Weather

In June of last year, a full Moon made headlines.  The news media called it a “supermoon” because it was 14% bigger and 30% brighter than other full Moons of 2013.   Around the world, people went outside to marvel at its luminosity.

If you thought one supermoon was bright, how about three….? The full Moons of summer 2014—July 12th, August 10th, and Sept. 9th–will all be supermoons.

splash
A new ScienceCast video counts the supermoons of summer 2014. Play it

The scientific term for the phenomenon is “perigee moon.” Full Moons vary in size because of the oval shape of the Moon’s orbit. The Moon follows an elliptical path around Earth with one side (“perigee”) about 50,000 km closer than the other (“apogee”).  Full Moons that occur on the perigee side of the Moon’s orbit seem extra big and bright.

This coincidence happens three times in 2014.  On July 12th and Sept 9th the Moon becomes full on the same day as perigee.  On August 10th it becomes full during the same hour as perigee—arguably making it an extra-super Moon.”

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For the first time, CO2 tops 400 ppm for three straight months

July 11th, 2014 at 2:49 pm by under Weather
Greenhouse gases top 400 ppm for three months in a row at Mauna Loa

(NOAA)  For the first time since carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been measured, the levels of this greenhouse gas at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, have been above 400 parts per million every single day for three straight months.

“We’ve reached another benchmark, reminding us that carbon dioxide concentrations continue to increase every year as carbon dioxide emissions continue,” said Pieter Tans, who leads NOAA’s measurement program. “Humans have caused carbon dioxide concentrations to rise 120 parts per million since pre-industrial times, with half of that since the early 1980s. Half of all emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel burning have taken place since 1986.”

In 2013, carbon dioxide levels at Mauna Loa, the oldest continuous measurement station operating since the 1950s, reached 400 ppm for several days for the first time during May, but did not stay at this level for an entire month.

Rising greenhouse gases

Rising greenhouse gases

This spring’s readings at Mauna Loa have set a new record for carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.

This year, the 400 ppm mark was reached two months earlier in March and the average surpassed 400 ppm for the months of April, May and June. You can track greenhouse gas concentrations online at NOAA’s website.

The global average has not yet reached 400 ppm. The global average for May, according to the most recent data, was 398.83 ppm. The average for June is also not expected to reach 400 ppm.

Carbon dioxide concentrations at Mauna Loa begin to decline in June every year as seasonal plant growth drives the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This trend is expected to continue until the end of summer in late September as part of the natural seasonal swing.

Other measurement sites

Arctic sites all reached 400 ppm in May of 2012, about a year before Mauna Loa.  Southern hemispheric sites are expected to follow with the South Pole expected to reach 400 ppm in late 2016.

“To reverse this trend of rising greenhouse gases, nations would need to quickly eliminate about half of fossil fuel emissions globally, and gradually continue further reductions until zero net emissions have been reached,” Tans said.